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(641 words)

Author(s): Allan, J. | Bosworth, C.E.
, an Indian coin, a rupee. In the later 9th/15th and early 10th/16th centuries, the silver tanka [ q.v.] of the sultans of Dihlī had become so debased that when S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh (947-52/1540-5) reformed the coinage, the name could no longer be given to a silver coin. To his new silver coin, corresponding to the original fine silver tanka, he therefore gave the name rūpiyya = rupee, i.e. the silver coin (Sanskrit, rūpya , rūpaka ), and tanka became a copper denomination. The weight of the rupee was 178 grains (11.53 gr) and it rapidly established itself in popular favour. Un…


(458 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, a district and town in the Uttar Pradesh province, formerly the United Provinces, of the Indian Union, forming a district in the Benares division of that province, with an area of 5,238 sq. miles, and with a population (1971 census) of 731,403 for the district and 80,768 for the town. Some 7% of the population are Muslims, and have shown a tendency to increase in proportion to the Hindus, owing to their greater vitality, containing as they do a smaller proportion of the very poor. The district…


(133 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(the transcription often used by Indian numismatists of what s̲h̲ould correctly be Ṣiddīḳī ), the name given by Tīpū Sulṭān of Mysore [see mahisur ] to a gold coin of the value of two pagodas (Port, pardao , the name of a gold coin long current in South India in pre-modern times and for which various etymologies have been propounded; see Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 652-7, 672-8), weighing 106 grains ( = 6.87 gr). The name Ṣiddīḳī derives from the epithet borne by the first caliph Abū Bakr [ q.v.] al-Ṣiddīḳ, in accordance with Tīpū’…


(139 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, Paisā (Hindi), English form pice, a copper coin of British India = 3 pies or ¼ anna. Under the Mug̲h̲als, the name paisā became applied to the older dām, introduced by S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh, 40 of which went to the rupee, as the unit of copper currency; the name found on the coins however is usually simply fulūs or rewānī . Paisā is the general name for the extensive ¶ copper coinage coined in the 18th and 19th centuries by the numerous native states which arose out of the Mug̲h̲al empire (see J. Prinsep, Useful tables, ed. E. Thomas, London 1858, 62-3). In the currencies of modern India and Pakistan, 100 pais…


(570 words)

Author(s): Allan, J. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a district in the Rohilkhand division in the north-west of Uttar Pradesh in the Indian Union (formerly the United Provinces of British India), with an area of 2,290 sq. miles/5,930 km2 and a population (1961 census) of 1,973,530 of whom 62% were at that time Hindu and 37% Muslim, the latter being stronger in the rural areas than the urban centres; the concentration of Muslims, almost wholly Sunnīs, is one of the thickest in the whole of Uttar Pradesh. Almost all the population is either Hindi- or Urdu-speaking. Nothing is k…


(479 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, an Indian gold coin. The name is the Persian muhr , which is a loanword from the Sanskrit mudrā , seal or die. The earliest occurence of the word on coins is on the forced currency of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ where it has the literal meaning of “sealed” or “stamped”. By the 10th/16th century it had come to be used as a popular rather than precise name for gold coins in general. Very little gold had been issued in India for two centuries before the reign of Akbar. One of his reforms was the issue of an extensive coinage in gold. In addition to many pieces which had onl…


(22 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
, the name given in the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar’s monetary system to the ¼ dāmpaysā ). (J. Allan)


(316 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p. ‘‘piece, fragment”), a Turkish coin of the Ottoman and early Republican periods. It was originally a silver piece of 4 aḳčes , first issued early in the 18th century; it soon replaced the aḳče as the monetary unit. The weight, originally 16 grains (1.10 grammes), sank to one-quarter of this weight by the beginning of the 19th century and the silver content also depreciated considerably. The multiples of the silver pāra were 5 ( bes̲h̲lik ) pāras ; 10 ( onli̊ḳ ); 15 ( onbes̲h̲lik ); 20 ( yigirmiparali̊ḳ ); 30 ( zolota ) and 40 ( g̲h̲urūs̲h̲ or piastre). Higher denominations: 60 ( altmi̊s̲h̲li̊ḳ


(80 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(Hindi “quarter”), English form “pie”, the smallest copper coin of British India = 1/12 of an anna. Originally, in the East India Company’s early experiments for a copper coinage, the pie, as its name implies, was the quarter of an anna or pice [see paysā ]; after the Acts of 1835, 1844 and 1870, however, the pie was ⅓ of a pice. (J. Allan) Bibliography Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases 2, 705. ¶


(695 words)

Author(s): Allan, J.
(p., lārī ), a silver coin current in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean in the 16th and 17th centuries. It takes its name from the town of Lār [ q.v.], the capital of Lāristān at which it was first struck; cf. Pedro Texeira ( Travels , Hakluyt Soc, London 1902, 341): “There is also the city of Lar... whence are called laris, a money of the finest silver, very well drawn and current throughout the East”, and Sir Thomas Herbert speaking of Lār in 1627 ( Some yearstravels , London 1665, 130): “near this byzar the lames are coyned, a famous sort of money.” The lar…


(1,241 words)

Author(s): Wiedemann, E. | Allan, J.
, traditionally translated as antimony sulphide (stibnite), is synonymous in the Arabic and Persian geographical sources with it̲h̲mid and surma . Its primary source was Iran, where the following places were noted for its production: in K̲h̲urāsān, Ṭūs ( Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , ed. M. Sutūda, tr. and comm. V. Minorsky, § 23.11— surma), and Gūzgān ( Hudūd a-ʿālam , § 23.51— sang-i surma); in Māzandarān, Sāmār near Sārī ( Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, § 32.23— surma) and Ṭabaristān (Ibn Isfandiyār, Tāʾrīk̲h̲-i Ṭabaristān , tr. E. G. Browne, 33— surma); and in D̲j̲ibāl province, Mt. Damāvand (Abū Dulaf, al-Risāl…