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(351 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), a form current in Muslim India, passing into Urdu and Hindi and derived from Pers. s̲h̲ikar “game, prey; the chase, hunting”, with the senses of “a native hunter or stalker, who accompanied European hunters and sportsmen”, and then of these last sportsmen themselves (see Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 2London 1903, 827-8, s.v. Shikaree , Shekarry ). The native hunters stemmed from the many castes in India whose occupation was the snaring, trapping, tracking, or pursuit of …


(325 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
(p.), often Arabised as Sirdār , “supreme military commander”, literally “holding or possessing the head”, i.e. chief or leader. It was borrowed in the military sense by the Turks, who, however, sometimes derive it in error from sirrdār (“the keeper of a secret”). Through Turkish it has reached Arabic, and in a letter written in 989/1581 by “one of the princes of the Arabs (of Yaman)” occurs the phrase wa-ʿayyana sardār an ʿala ’l-ʿasākir (“and he appointed a commander over the troops”), on which Rutgers comments “Vocabulum sardār , quod Persicae originis est, ducem


(1,577 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Islam, Riazul
proper is an inland district of India bordered on the south by Vindhyās, and lying between lat. 23° 30′ N. and long. 74° 30′ E. To this tract, known in the age of the Mahābhārata as Nishadha, and later as Avanti, from the name of its capital, now Ud̲j̲d̲j̲ayn, was afterwards added Akara, or eastern Mālwā, with its capital, Bhīlsā, and the country lying between the Vindhyās and the Sātpūras. Primitive tribes like Ābhīras and Bhīls have been dwelling among the hills and jungles of Mālwā since ancient times, s…

Mīrān Muḥammad S̲h̲āh I

(297 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
, of K̲h̲āndēs̲h̲ [ q.v.] in western India, was the eleventh prince of the Fārūḳī dynasty (regn. 926-43/1520-37). He belonged to the younger branch of that line, which had taken refuge in Gud̲j̲arāt, and his ancestors had lived in that kingdom and had married princesses of the Muẓaffarī family until Maḥmūd I of Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.] had, on the extinction of the elder branch of the Fārūḳīs, placed ʿĀdil K̲h̲ān III, Muḥammad’s father, on the throne of K̲h̲āndēs̲h̲. Muḥammad, who was, through his mother, the great-grandson of Maḥmūd, and the grandson of …


(459 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, conventional rendering Sialkot, a town in the Pand̲j̲āb situated in 32° 30′ N. and 74° 32′ E., the foundation of which is attributed by legend to Rād̲j̲ā Sālā, the uncle of the Pāṇḍavas, and its restoration to Rād̲j̲ā Sālivāhan, in the time of Vikramāditya. Sālivahān had two sons, Pūran, killed by the instrumentality of a wicked step-mother, and thrown into a well, still the resort of pilgrims, near the town, and Rasālu, the mythical hero of Pand̲j̲ā…

Saʿd (I) b. Zangī

(478 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ ʿIzz al-Dīn , Turkish Atabeg in Fārs of the Salg̲h̲urid line [ q.v.], reigned in S̲h̲īrāz from 599/1202-3 until most probably 623/1226. On the death of his elder brother Takla/Tekele (Degele, etc.?) b. Zangī in 594/1198, Saʿd claimed power in Fārs, but his claim was contested by his ¶ cousin Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l, the son of his father’s elder brother Sunḳur, who had founded the dynasty. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l retained the royal title for nine years, but throughout that period warfare between him and his cousin continued without a decisive result for…

Ṣāḥib Ḳirān

(228 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
(a. and p.), a title meaning “Lord of the (auspicious) conjunction”. Ḳirān means a conjunction of the planets, ḳirān al-saʿdayn [see al-saʿdān ] a conjunction of the two auspicious planets (Jupiter and Venus), and ḳirān al-naḥsayn a conjunction of the two inauspicious planets (Saturn and Mars). In the title, the word refers, of course, to the former only. The Persian i of the iḍāfa is omitted, as in ṣāḥib-dil , by fakk-i iḍāfa. The title was first assumed by the Amīr Tīmūr, who is said to have been born under a fortunate conjunction, but with whom its assumption was…

Sar-i Pul

(304 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
, “the head of the bridge”, called by Arab geographers Raʾs al-Ḳanṭara, is a town of Afg̲h̲ān Turkistān (lat. 36° 13′ N., long. 65° 55′ E., alt. 610 m/2,007 feet), on the Āb-i Safīd, from the bridge over which it takes its name. It is not to be confused with a village near Samarḳand or a quarter of Nīs̲h̲āpūr, both of the same name, each of which is historically as important as the Afg̲h̲ān town. Between the northern spurs of the Paropamisus and the sa…


(2,094 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Temimi, Abdeljelil | Haig, T.W.
(p.), from the Persian sipah , sipāh “army”, hence basically meaning soldier. It has given such European words as English sepoy (see below, 2.) and French spahi (see below, 3.). 1. In the Ottoman empire. Here, sipāhī had the more specific meaning of “cavalryman” in the feudal forces of the empire, in contrast to the infantrymen of the professional corps of the Janissaries [see yeñi čeri ]. Such feudal cavalrymen were supported by land grants ( dirlik “living, means of livelihood”) at different levels of income yield. Below the k̲h̲āṣṣ [ q.v.] lands granted to members of the higher ech…

Fārūḳī Dynasty

(617 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
This dynasty was founded by Malik Rād̲j̲a, son of Ḵh̲ānd̲j̲ahān Fārūḳī, who claimed descent from the second Ḵh̲alīfa, ʿUmar al-Fārūḳ (ʿthe Discriminator’) and was one of the amīrs of ʿAlā al-Dīn Ḵh̲ild̲j̲ī and Muḥammad b. Tag̲h̲laḳ. Fīrūz Tag̲h̲laḳ gave Malik Rād̲j̲a a d̲j̲agīr iu Ḵh̲āndes̲h̲. and afterwards made him governor of that province. On the disruption of the empire after the death of Fīrūz in 1388 he became virtually independent and his eldest son Naṣīr Ḵh̲ān, who succeeded him on his death (April 9, 1399), formally proclaimed…


(14,042 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W. | Moreland, W. H. | Dodwell, H. H. | Rose, H. A.
, the name given to the dynasty of Emperors of Hindustān founded by Bābur in 932 (1526), in virtue of the claim made by Tīmūr, the ancestor of the dynasty, to relationship with the family of the Mongol (Mug̲h̲al) Čingiz Ḵh̲ān [q. v.]. For the detailed history of the dynasty see the articles bābar, humāyūn, akbar, d̲j̲ahāngīr, s̲h̲āh-d̲j̲ahān, awrangzēb, and their successors. I. The mug̲h̲al empire to the death of awrangzēb: A. Military Organization. B. Economics and Administration. ¶ II. The decline of the mug̲h̲al empire. III. Mug̲h̲al architecture in india. I. The mug̲h̲al empire to …


(605 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, Muḥammad Ḳāsim Hindū S̲h̲āh, known as Firis̲h̲ta (born 960 = 1552, died after 1033 = 1623), of Astarābād in northern Persia, was brought to Aḥmadnagar as a child in ¶ the reign of Ḥusain Niẓām S̲h̲āh I and, while yet a youth, entered the service of Murtaẓā Niẓām S̲h̲āh I. The persecution of foreigners which followed the murder of Ḥusain II drove him to Bīd̲j̲āpūr where, in January 1590, he entered the service of Ibrāhīm ʿĀdil S̲h̲āh II. Shortly afterwards he wrote Ik̲h̲tiyārāt-i Ḳāsimī, a work on medicine, and Ibrāhīm, pleased with its style and aware of Firis̲h̲ta’s devotion…

Maḥmūd II

(487 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī, of Mālwa, was raised to the throne on May 2, 1511, on the death of his father, Nāṣir al-Dīn Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī. The early days of his reign were disturbed by rebellions on behalf of his brothers, and of other pretenders, and he was once driven from his capital, but was enabled to return and expel the rebels by the assistance of Mednī Rāy, with a force of Rād̲j̲pūts. The king soon had reason to repent of. having accepted their aid, for Mednī Rāy assumed the place of minister, an…


(407 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, Muʿizz al-Dīn, king of Dihlī, was the son of Nāṣir al-Dīn Bug̲h̲rā, king of Bengal and second son of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Balbān [v. balban] of Dihlī. On the death of his eldest son, Muḥammad Ḵh̲ān, who was slain by the Mug̲h̲uls, Balbān made his second son, Bug̲h̲rā Ḵh̲ān, who was governor of Bengal, his heir, but the prince could not endure the restraint of his father’s court, and was absent in Bengal when, in 1287, the throne became vacant, and the amīrs made his son, Kaiḳobād, king. Kaiḳobād, who was barely eighteen years of age at the time of his accession, had been most…


(311 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, a word formed from the Persian word s̲h̲ikār (“sport”, in the sense of hunting or shooting) and meaning a hunter. There are many castes in India whose occupation is the snaring, trapping, tracking, or pursuit of birds and beasts, but the caste which has adopted or received the word S̲h̲ikārī as its tribal name is found chiefly in Sind. A writer in 1822 said: “Shecarries are generally Hindoos of low caste, who gain their livelihood entirely by catching birds, hares, and all sorts of animals”, but the S…

Sar-i Pul

(242 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, “the head of the bridge”, called by Arab geographers Raʾs al-Ḳanṭara, is a town of Afg̲h̲Jān Turkistān situated in 36° 20’ N. Lat. and 65° ¶ 40’ E. Long, on the Āb-i Safīd from the bridge over which it takes its name. It is not to be confused with a village near Samarḳand or a quarter of Nīs̲h̲āpūr, both of the some name, each of which is historically as important as the Afg̲h̲ān town. Between the northern spurs of the Paropamisus and the sands to the south of the Oxus, in a fertile tract well watered by streams from t…

Fīrūz S̲h̲āh Tag̲h̲laḳ

(416 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, son of Malik Rad̲j̲ab, brother of G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tag̲h̲īaḳ, and the daughter of Rānā Mal Bhaṭṭī of Abohar, was educated and advanced to high rank by his cousin, Muḥammad Ibn Tag̲h̲laḳ, on whose death near Ṭhaṭha on March 20, 1351, he was induced to ascend the throne. He extricated the army then employed in Sind from its difficulties and led it back to Dihlī, where in the meantime Aḥmad Ayāz Ḵh̲vād̲j̲a-yi Ḏj̲ahān, whom Muḥammad had left in charge of the capital, too hastily crediting a repo…


(139 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, a palace, castle, mansion or pavilion, in which sense it is synonymous with the Turkish kūs̲h̲k. The word occurs in the Ḳurʾān three times, once in the singular and twice in the plural ( ḳuṣūr), and is applied twice to castles on earth and once to the abodes of the faithful in Paradise. It is the common word for the palace of a king in his capital or of a governor in the chief city of a province, e. g. Ḳaṣr-i Ḳād̲j̲ār, the Palace of the Ḳād̲j̲ārs, near Ṭihrān. The word, with the article, has been naturalized in Spanish as alcazar and is applied to old Moorish castles, such as the al-cazar of …

S̲h̲īr ʿAlī

(529 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, Bārakzāī, Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistān, was the third son of the Amīr Dust Muḥammad and succeeded his father, in accordance with his will, on June 9, 1863. His overtures to the Government of India on his accession were, unfortunately, coldly received. The Amīr found it necessary to march, almost immediately, into the Ḵh̲uram district to compel his brother ʿAẓīm Ḵh̲an to swear allegiance to him and early in the following year both ʿAẓīm Ḵh̲ān in Kuram and Afḍal Ḵh̲an, the eldest brother, in Balk̲h̲, re…

Muḥammad b. Sām

(695 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
, Muʿizz al-Dīn , was the fourth of the S̲h̲ansabānī princes of G̲h̲ūr to rule the empire of G̲h̲aznī [see g̲h̲azna and g̲h̲ūrids ]. His laḳab was originally S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn, but he assumed that of Muʿizz al-Dīn. His elder brother G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn succeeded his cousin Sayf al-Dīn in 558/1163 and made Muḥammad governor of Harāt, entrusting to him also the duty of extending the dominion of the house in India. Muḥammad led his first expedition into India in 571/1175, expelled the Ismāʿīlī heretics who ruled Multān, placed an orthodox governor in that province, and …
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