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(869 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F. | Bazin, M.
, modern Turkish Tekirdaǧ , the former Rodosto , a town and port of Turkey, on the European coast of the Sea of Marmara (eastern Thrace), named after the schistous massif of the Tekir Dag or Tekfur Dagi (924 m/3,030 feet) which skirts the coast to the southwest, and also the administrative centre of the province ( il) of the same name. The town stands on the site of the ancient Bisanthe (Βισάνθη), later Rhaidestos (‘Ραιδεστός). In ca. 759/1357 it fell to the Ottomans after they crossed the Straits (see von Hammer, GOR, i, 147). The old Ottoman chronicles give details of the ruse used b…


(1,113 words)

Author(s): Fleming, Barbara | Babinger, F. | Woodhead, Christine
, the name of a family of Ottoman Turkish scholars who stemmed from the village of Ṭas̲h̲ Köprü (“stone bridge”) near Ḳasṭamūnī [ q.v.] in northern Anatolia. Famous members of the family include: 1. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Muṣṭafā , preceptor of Sultan Selīm I [ q.v.]. ¶ He was born at Ṭas̲h̲ Köprü in 857/1453, and died on 12 S̲h̲awwāl 935/19 July 1529 in Istanbul. He studied in Bursa and Istanbul under celebrated scholars, and then progressed through a series of medrese s at Bursa, Ankara, Skopje, and Edirne. Bāyezīd II [ q.v.] appointed him preceptor ( k̲h̲od̲j̲a ) of his son …

Tīmūrtās̲h̲ Og̲h̲ullari̊

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a family which flourished in the service of the early Ottoman sultans in the 8th/14th and early 9th/15th centuries, the most celebrated of its members being the general and wezīr Tīmūrtās̲h̲ b. Ḳara ʿAlī Beg, d. 806/1404. In the early Ottoman historical sources, it is called the Āl-i Tīmūrtās̲h̲. Ḳarā ʿAlī Beg’s father Ayḳut Alp (d. 725/1325) had been in the service of the somewhat shadowy founding figures of the Ottoman dynasty, Ertog̲h̲rul and ʿOt̲h̲mān I [ q.v.]. In the first year of Ork̲h̲an’s reign (726/1326), Ḳarā ʿAlī Beg took the fortress of Hereke on the Gulf o…


(1,289 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F. | , Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the verbal noun of the form II verb waḳḳaʿa in the sense of “to indite, register the decree of a ruler”, hence with the meaning of a document with a signature or device ( ʿalāma ), equivalent to the ruler’s signature. 1. As an administrative term. From the meaning given above, tawḳīʿ comes to acquire the general sense of “edict, decree of the ruler” and its being drawn up in a written form. More particularly, it has the special meaning of the titles of the ruler (roughly equivalent to the ṭug̲h̲rā [ q.v.] of the Ottoman sultans) to be inscribed in the chancellery, which gives the …

Turak̲h̲ān Beg

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, an Ottoman general, conqueror of Thessaly and warden of its marches, d. 860/1456. The hitherto obscure origin of Turak̲h̲ān Beg is now explained in his last will and testament of D̲j̲umādā I 850/August 1446 (in a certified Greek translation in Epam. G. Pharmakidis, ʿH Λάρισα, Volo 1926, 280-7), where he calls himself son of the “late Pas̲h̲a Yigit Bey” (τοῦ μακαρίτου Πασσα Γηγὴτ Βέη). Accordingly, his father was the well-known Pas̲h̲a Yigit Beg (called by the Serbians and Italians Pasaythus, Basaitus, etc.; cf. C.J. Jireček, Staat und Gesellschaft im mittelalterlichen Serbien


(667 words)

Author(s): Babinger, F.
, modern Turkish Tire, a town of southwestern Anatolia, in the southern part of the Küçük Menderes valley, 67 km/40 miles south-east of Izmir (lat. 38° 64’ N., long. 27° 45’ E., altitude 108 m/350 feet), in early Turkish times a town in the beylik of the Aydi̊n-og̲h̲ullari̊ [see aydi̊n ; aydi̊n-og̲h̲lu ]. The present town presumably occupies the site of the ancient Arcadiopolis, later called Teira (i.e. “town”, e.g. in Thya-teira; cf. W.M. Ramsay, The historical geography of Asia Minor , 104, 114). In the Byzantine period the town appears as Thyrea (Θύρ…