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(480 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
(Ottoman, Istōlnī/Ustōlnī Belg̲h̲rād [from Serbian stolni belgrad “white capital castie”]; German, Stuhlweiβenburg; Latin Alba Regia), a town and centre of a sand̲j̲aḳ in Transdanubia, Hungary, and one of the main royal and ecclesiastical centres from the time of St. Stephen (1000-38), where several kings were crowned and buried. Realising its strategic and spiritual importance in the Buda-Esztergom-Székesfehérvár triangle, the Ottomans took the town and its castle, which fell without considerable resistance, on 3 September, during the 1543 c…


(593 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
, Ṭi̊mi̊s̲h̲wār (?), the Ottoman rendering of Magyar Temesvár, Romanian Timişoara, a town and centre of a wilāyet in Ottoman Hungary, belonging to Romania since 1919. First mentioned in an 1177 charter, Temesvár acquired regional importance as the seat of a county; even the royal court functioned here between 1315 and 1323. Situated near the Ottoman-Hungarian border, it gained strategic significance. In ca. 1480 a captainship-in-general was created around Temesvár in order to organise the defence of the eastern frontiers; the fortress resisted an Ottoman attack in 1551. Although th…


(395 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
(Serbian Senta), a town on the right bank of the Tisza in the ancient Hungarian county of Bács-Bodrog, today in northern Serbia. A decisive battle was fought in its vicinity on 24 Ṣafar 1109/11 September 1697 between the forces of Sultan Muṣṭafā II [ q.v.] and Prince Eugene of Savoy. Ottoman rule in Hungary collapsed relatively rapidly ¶ after Buda was recaptured in 1686. Resistance to the allied Christian armies was sparse and took place along the Drava-Danube line only. Following a serious defeat at Szalánkemén (Stari Slankamen) in 1102/1691, where the Grand Vizier Köprülü Muṣṭafā [ q.v.]…


(750 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
(Ottoman Pečūy , German Fünfkirchen, Latin Quinque Ecclesiae), town and centre of a sand̲j̲aḳ in Transdanubian Hungary. Founded on the site of Roman Sopianae and preserving remnants of buildings from the first centuries of Christianity, Pécs became an episcopal see in 1009, housed the first university of the country (established in 1367) and was the most important economic centre south of Lake Balaton throughout the Middle Ages. The town surrendered without fight to the forces of Ḳāsi̊m, sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Mohács [ q.v.], and Murād, sand̲jaḳ-begi of Pozsega…


(1,272 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
(Ottoman Mihāč), a town in the county of Baranya, in southern Hungary. In its vicinity two important battles (a, b) took place, while the settlement itself gave name to an Ottoman sand̲j̲aḳ (c) in the 16th-17th centuries. (a) The first battle of Mohács, the more decisive of the two, was fought on 21 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 932/August 1526. With Süleymān I’s accession to the throne in 926/1520, a new era started in the western politics of the Ottoman Empire. While Selīm I had had mainly eastern targets, his son turned towards ¶ Europe. Hungary, which had formerly been a s…


(445 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
(Ottoman Pes̲h̲te ), formerly a separate town, in Ottoman times centre of a nāḥiye in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Budīn [ q.v.], today part of the capital of Hungary. It was an earlier settlement than Buda, with mostly German inhabitants. After the Mongol invasion in A.D. 1241-2, with the creation of the fortification on the Castle Hill of present-day Buda (called new Pest for a period), Pest slowly lost some of its importance and was overshadowed by the capital, to which also the Germans moved. Nevertheless, the population of Pest reached some 7-8,000 souls at the end of the 15th century. Although surro…


(478 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
, the Battle of Mezökeresztes (Turkish: Hāčova or Ṭābūr muḥārebesi ), the most important encounter between the Habsburg-Hungarian and Ottoman troops during the “long” or 15-years’ war. This took place near a village, south-east of Eger [ q.v.] in Hungary on 5 Rābīʿ I 1005/26 October 1596. Its immediate antecedent was the capture of Eger by the forces of Meḥemmed III, the first sultan who personally took the field in war after Süleymān I’s death. The Imperial troops, which had originally been sent to relieve this important city unde…


(310 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
, German Güns, a small Hungarian town near the Austrian border with a mediaeval castle which was sieged and symbolically taken by the Ottomans in 1532. In the first decades of his reign, mainly under the influence of the Grand Vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, Süleymān the Magnificent cherished world-conquering ambitions. To achieve this goal, he intended, among other things, to defeat the Austrian Habsburgs by occupying their capital. After the unsuccessful 1529 campaign, he undertook another military operation in 1532 with the aim of marching against Vienna. The Ottoman army proceeded sl…


(751 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
(Ottoman Turkish: Warād , Wārād , Warāt , etc., Romanian: Oradea, German: Groβwardein), an important town originally in the Hungarian county of Bihar, part of Transylvania after the creation of this principality, centre of an Ottoman wilāyet [ q.v.] between 1660 and 1692, and today a place of regional significance in Romania with a considerable Hungarian population. As a fortified place since the 10th century and as seat of a bishop since the 11th century, Várad acquired early importance among Hungarian towns. Partly destroyed by the Mongols in 1241, …


(416 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
, the Ottoman orthography for Szigetvár , a town and centre of a sand̲j̲aḳ , temporarily of a beglerbegilik , in Transdanubian Hungary. The originally not very important town and castle, situated in the morasses of the rivulet Almás, became a significant military centre of Habsburg Hungary after the fall of Székesfehérvár and Pécs, the main royal and episcopal towns in Transdanubia. An unsuccessful Ottoman attack was directed against it in 963/1556. Ten years later, Süleymān the Magnificent [ q.v.] led his last campaign against Szigetvár, which put up a strong resistance. …

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲od̲j̲a

(1,834 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine | Babinger, Fr. | Dávid, G.
, the name of two Ottoman dignitaries. 1. The vizier, scholar and prose writer (845-91/1440-86). Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was born probably in 845/1440, in Bursa, the son of K̲h̲i̊ḍr Beg b. Ḳāḍī D̲j̲elāl al-Dīn (d. 863/1459 [ q.v.]), the first Ottoman ḳāḍī of Istanbul. Through his mother, a daughter of Mollā Yegān (d. 878/1473), he was also descended from a second ʿulemāʾ family prominent in the early Ottoman period. After initial appointments as müderris in Edirne, he was promoted by Meḥemmed II to a teaching post at the Istanbul ṣaḥn-i themāniye [ q.v.], to be held jointly with that of k̲h̲…


(409 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
(Ottoman, Segedīn), a town and centre of a sand̲j̲aḳ in the Great Plain of Hungary, along the river Tisza. First mentioned in a 1183 charter, Szeged acquired town privileges in the 13th century and became a civitas (“free royal town”) in 1498. After being ransacked by the Ottomans in 1526 and by the Serbian militia of “Tsar” Yovan in 1527, it enjoyed peaceful years until 1541. Since the town had some ruinous remnants of a mediaeval castle only, it was unable to show resistance, and was easily taken by the Ottoman Pas̲h̲a of Buda early in 1543. A sand̲j̲aḳ was created immediately around Szege…


(311 words)

Author(s): Dávid, G.
, the name of a peace-treaty signed by the Ottomans and the Habsburgs in 1606, and so-called ever since the negotiations leading to it started on boats at the confluence of the rivers Zsitva and Danube (the literal meaning of the word being “Zsitva mouth”). The peace treaty put an end to the so-called “Long” or “Fifteen Years’ War”, which was begun in 1593 and renewed each year, bringing smaller or bigger successes to both sides without a final victory. The revolt led by István Bocskai against the Habsburgs helped the Ottomans to a certain…