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(1,028 words)

Author(s): de Blois, F.C.
, the Arabic name for the Marcionites, an important non-monotheistic tendency in early Christianity. Marcion (Μαρκιων; Ar. Marḳiyūn) was a native of Sinope [see sīnūb ] on the Black Sea who arrived in Rome in A.D. 138 (or somewhat later) and taught among the Christian community in the imperial capital. Marcion’s doctrine was that the god described in the Old Testament (the creator, or just god) is different from the god described in the New Testament (the stranger, or good god), the father of Chris…

Mud̲j̲īr al-Dīn Baylaḳānī

(386 words)

Author(s): de Blois, F.C.
, a Persian poet of the second half of the 6th/12th century. He was, as his nisba indicates, a native of Baylaḳān [ q.v.], in Transcaucasia, a compatriot and contemporary of the celebrated Ḵh̲āḳānī [ q.v.]. Mud̲j̲īr’s dīwān contains a few poems to the S̲h̲arwān-s̲h̲āh Manūčihr II (d. not long after 555/1160-1), which must belong to the earliest part of his career, but the majority of his odes are addressed to the Atabegs Nuṣrat al-Dīn Ḏj̲ahān-pahlawān b. Īldügüz (571-82/1175-86) and his successor Ḳi̊zi̊l Arsla…


(48,480 words)

Author(s): De Blois, F.C. | Van Dalen, B. | Humphreys, R.S. | Marin, Manuela | Lambton, Ann K.S | Et al.
(a.) “date, dating, chronology, era”, then also “annals, history”. ¶ I. Dates and Eras in the Islamic World 1. In the sense of “date, dating”, etc. i. Etymology . The non-Arabic origin of this word was recognised by the mediaeval philologists, but the often-cited derivation of the participle muʾarrak̲h̲ “dated”, from a supposed Persian compound māh-rōz “month-day”, is naturally fanciful. In fact, it clearly belongs to the common Semitic root for “moon” and “month”; cf. Akkadian ( w) arḫu , Sabaic wrḫ , Ethiopic wärḫ , Mehri wark̲h̲ , or, with the usual Northwe…