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ʿOt̲h̲mān II

(843 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, sixteenth sulṭān of the Ottoman empire, was born on the 19th Ḏj̲umādā II 1012 (Nov. 15, 1603; cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 56), the son of Sulṭān Aḥmad I. After the death of his father in Nov. 1617, the brother of the latter had been proclaimed sulṭān as Muṣṭafā I [q. v.] but ʿOt̲h̲mān, taking advantage of the weak character of his uncle and supported by the mufti Esʿad Efendi and the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲a Muṣṭafā, seized the throne on Feb. 26, 1618 by a coup d’état. The youth of the new sulṭān at first assured the pr…

Murād III

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twelfth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born on the 5th Ḏj̲umādā I 953 (4th July 1546; Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 76) as son of the later sulṭān Selīm II and the k̲h̲āṣṣekī Nūr Bānū. He arrived at Constantinople on Dec. 21st, 1574, after Selīm II’s death and reigned until his death on January 16, 1595 or a few days later. His reign is not characterized by great conquests in Europe. The peaceful relations with Austria were officially maintained; peace …

K̲h̲arpūt

(1,700 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Turkish Armenia, built on a rock to the north of a great plain in the area bounded by the west and south by the Euphrates, in the north by the Murād Ṣu and in the east by the chain of the Armenian Taurus; the site of the town itself lies in the Antitaurus. From the time of Diocletian this territory formed part of the Armenian districts incorporated in the Roman Empire and from the time of Justinian to the Roman province of „Fourth Armenia” which occupied the banks of the Arsanias (Murād Ṣu) and which the earliest Arab geographers still ¶ knew under this name. This district is often reckoned to belong to. the old Armenian province of Sophene. Hübschmann wished to identify it with the district of Anzitene (Arm. Handzitʾ; Arabic Hinzīṭ, Yāḳūt, iv. 993). The identification of Ḵh̲arpūt with Καρκαθιοκέθα (should be ’Αρκαθιοκέρθα, Z. D. M. G., xxxi. 449) capital of Sophene (Strabo, xi. 527) previously suggested by Ritter could then no longer be maintained. Lehmann-Haupt, however, has come back to the older view (p. 513). In any case the town can be regarded as identical with „Ziata Castellum”, the capture of which by the Persians is mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus (xix. 6, 1). Arab writers still know the town by the name of Ḥiṣn Ziyād (Yāḳūt, ii. 276) probably with assimilation to the well known Arab proper name; in the same way in Syriac we find the forms Ziyāṭ (Land, Anecd. Syr., ii. 61, 4) and Ḥisnā dě Zāid (Barhebraeus). The form Ḵh̲arpūt is of Armenian origin; it comes from the Armenian Ḵh̲arberd (or Karberd), which probably contains in any case the Armenian word berd meaning „castle”, although the first element cannot be accurately identified. The Arabs write Ḵh̲artabirt (Yāḳūt, ii. 417). Th…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Lala

(381 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Aḥmad I. He was a Bosnian by origin and a relation of Muḥammad Soḳolli Pas̲h̲a. The year of his birth is not given. After having had his education in the palace, he was mīr-ak̲h̲or and became in 1595 ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries. Two years later he took part in the Austrian wars as beylerbey of Rūm-ili and was commander of Esztergom (Gran; Turkish: Usturg̲h̲on) when this town capitulated to the Austrian army in September 1595. During the following years Lala Muḥammad was several times ser-ʿasker in Hungary and when, in July 1604, the grand vizier Yawuz ʿAlī had di…

Osrūs̲h̲ana

(739 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a district in Transoxania. The form Osrūs̲h̲ana is the best known although Yāḳūt (i. 245) says that Os̲h̲rūsana is preferable. In the Persian versions of the text of al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and in the Persian text of the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (ed. Barthold) we find more often Surūs̲h̲ana while Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih sometimes has S̲h̲urūsana; the original form may have been Srōs̲h̲ana. This district lies to the northeast of Samarḳand between this tow D and Ḵh̲od̲j̲and, to the south of the Sīr Daryā (Saiḥūn) so that it forms the approach to th…

Sahl b. Hārūn

(1,009 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arab author and poet who flourished at the end of the second and beginning of the third century a. h. (= beginning of the ninth century a. d.). According to the Fihrist, he was of Persian descent and born in Dastmaisān, between Baṣra and Wāṣiṭ. Al-Ḥuṣrī makes him come from Maisān, which is quite near it, and gives him also the kunya Abū ʿAmr (on the margin of the ʿIḳd, ii. 190). The name of his grandfather is variously given: Rāmnūy, Rāhyūn (both in the Fihrist) or Rāhīyūnī (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Kitāb al-Bayān, i. 24; cf. also van Vloten’s note to p. 10 of his edition of al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ’ Kitāb al-Buk̲h̲alāʾ). S…

Ḳūṣ

(498 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Upper Egypt on the east bank of the Nile. The form Ḳūṣ (Ḳūs in al-Farg̲h̲ānī and Ibn Rusta) comes from the Coptic Kōs (or Kōs Berbir) which a popular etymology later connected with the Coptic verb meaning “to bury”. In the Roman period the town was ¶ called Apollinopolis Parva and sometimes Diocletianopolis. In the early centuries of Islām, Ḳūṣ seems to have been of much less importance than the adjoining town of Ḳifṭ [q.v.]. Some of the early geographers like Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih do not mention it although it is found in the tables of al-Ḵh̲wārizmī (ed. by von Mžik, p. 9) and al-Fa…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Bairaḳdār

(699 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish grand vizier in 1808, was the son of a wealthy Janissary at Rusčuḳ, born about 1750. He distinguished himself in the war with Russia under Muṣṭafā III, and acquired in these years the surname of bairaḳdār. After the war he lived on his estates near Rusčuḳ, and acquired the semiofficial position of aʿyān of Hezārgrād and later of Rusčuḳ. With other aʿyāns he took part in an action against the government at Adrianople, but became finally a reliable supporter of the government. ¶ Having already received the honorary offices of ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ and of mīr ak̲h̲or, he was, in 1806,…

Ṣolaḳ

(194 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was the name, in the old military organisation of the Ottoman Empire, of the archers of the Sulṭān’s bodyguard. The word ṣolaḳ is an old Turkish word meaning “left-handed”. The relation of this meaning to that of archer is not quite clear. The solaks belonged to the Janissaries, of which they formed four orta’s (60th -63rd), each of 100 men under the command of a Ṣolaḳ Bas̲h̲i̊, and two lieutenants ( rekiab ṣolag̲h̲i̊). They were, however, used exclusively as bodyguards, a duty they shared with the peik’s [q. v.]. They had the same uniform as the Janissaries, except that they wore a cap ( uskiuf) …

al-Ubulla

(758 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, a town of mediaeval ʿIrāḳ situated in the Euphrates-Tigris delta region at the head of the Persian Gulf and famed as the terminal for commerce from India and further east. It lay to the east of al-Baṣra [ q.v.] on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Ubulla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to ¶ the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal is generally given as four farsak̲h̲ s or two barīd s (al-Muḳaddasī). Al-Ubulla can be identified with ’Απολόγου ’Εμπόριον, mentioned in the Periplus m…

Muṣṭafā I

(523 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman sultan (1026-7/1617-18 and 1031-2/1622-3), was born in the year 1000/1591 as son of Meḥemmed III [ q.v.]. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sultan, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmed I [ q.v.] at the latter’s death on 23 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/22 November 1617. But his weakmindedness —which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmed— made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmed’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself e…

al-Mahalla al-Kubrā

(600 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
or maḥalla kabīr is the modern name of an important town in the Delta of the Nile at some distance to the west of the Damietta arm, north-east of Ṭanṭa. It ¶ lies on the Turʿat al-Milāḥ canal, a branch of the Baḥr S̲h̲ībīn. In view of the large number of Egyptian geographical names compounded with Maḥalla (see these listed in Muḥammad Ramzī, al-Ḳāmūs al-d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfī li ’l-bilād al-Miṣriyya , Cairo 1953-68, i, 404-9), the identification of the town with the names mentioned by earlier Arabic writers is a matter of some difficulty. Maspero an…

Ṣart

(592 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the form of the name in Ottoman Turkish of the small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ Σάρδεις of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī Bey write Sārd), capital of the Lydian kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Sart Çay (Paktōlos) a little southward to the spot where this river joins the Gediz Çay (Hermos). Although in the later Byzantine period Sardes had lost much of its former importance (as a metropolitan see) and been outflanked by Magnesia (Turkish Mag̲h̲nīsa [ q.v.]) and Philadelphia (Ala S̲h̲ehir [ q.v.]), it still was one of the larger towns, wh…

Usrūs̲h̲ana

(747 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the name of a region lying to the west of Farg̲h̲āna [ q.v.] in mediaeval Islamic Transoxania, now falling in the region where the eastern part of the Uzbekistan Republic, the northernmost part of the Tajikistan Republic and the easternmost part of the Kirghiz Republic meet. The form Usrūs̲h̲ana is the best known, although Yāḳūt (i, 245) says that Us̲h̲rūsana is preferable. In the Persian versions of the text of al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and in the Persian text of the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam we find more often Surūs̲h̲ana, while Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih sometimes has S̲h̲ur…

Meḥemmed IV

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, nineteenth sultan of the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey, known as awd̲j̲i̊ "the hunter" from his excessive passion for the chase, reigned 1058-99/1648-87. Born on 30 Ramadan 1051/2 January 1642, he was the son of Sultan Ibrāhīm [ q.v.] and Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a Turk̲h̲ān Sulṭān. He was placed on the throne in Istanbul at the age of seven after the deposition in 18 Rad̲j̲ab 1058/8 August 1648 of the sensualist and possibly mentally deranged “Deli” Ibrāhīm, at a moment when Ibrāhīm was the sole surviving adult male of the house of ʿOt̲h̲mān, but i…

Murād I

(2,118 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(761-91/1360-89), according to the common tradition the third ruler of the Ottoman state, was a son of Ork̲h̲ān and the Byzantine lady Nīlūfer. Although some Ottoman sources profess to know the year of his birth ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 74, gives the year 726/1326), this date, like all dates given by Turkish sources relating to this period, is far from certain. The name Murād (Greek sources such as Phrantzes have ’Αμουράτης, from which later Latin sources make Amurath, while contemporary Latin sources from…

ʿOt̲h̲mān II

(887 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, sixteenth sultan of the Ottoman empire (regn. 1027-31/1618-22), was born on 19 D̲j̲umādā II 1012/15 November 1603; cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 56), the son of Sultan Aḥmed I. After the death of his father in November 1617, the brother of the latter had been proclaimed sultan as Muṣṭafā I [ q.v.] but ʿOt̲h̲mān, taking advantage of the weak character of his uncle and supported by the Muftī Esʿad Efendi and the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲asi̊ . Muṣṭafā, seized the throne on 26 February 1618 by a coup d’état. The youth of the new sultan at first assured the promoters of the coup d’état of cons…

Muṣṭafā III

(1,475 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-sixth sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1171-87/1757-74), was one of the younger sons of Aḥmed III [ q.v.] and was born on 14 Ṣafar 1129/28 January 1717 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 80). When he succeeded to the throne, after ʿOt̲h̲mān III’s [ q.v.] death, on 16 Ṣafar 1171/30 October 1757, his much more popular brother and heir to the throne, Meḥemmed, had recently died, in Rabīʿ I 1170/December 1756. Turkey enjoyed at that time, since the peace of Belgrade of 1739, a period of peace with her neighbours. Since December 1756 the very able Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] was grand vizier and …

Mudīr

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, title of the governors of the Egyptian provinces, called mudīrīya. The use of the word mudīr in this meaning is no doubt of Turkish origin. The office was created by Muḥammad ʿAlī, when, shortly after 1813, he reorganised the administrative division of Egypt, instituting seven mudīrīyas; this number has been changed several times [s. k̲h̲edive]. At the present day there are 14 mudīrīyas. The chief task of the mudīr is the controlling of the agricultural administration and of the irrigation, as executed by his subordinates, viz. the maʾmūr, who administers a markaz and the nāẓir who cont…

Muḥammad V

(614 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Res̲h̲ād, thirty-fifth Ottoman Sulṭān, was born on November 2, 1844 as a son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd. During the reign of his brother ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II he lived in seclusion; his very existence inspired ʿAbd al-Hamid with such terror that even the mentioning of persons with the name Res̲h̲ād had to be avoided ¶ in his presence (cf. Snouck Hurgronje, Verspreide Geschriften, iii. 232). He was a man of mild character, who owed his accession to the throne (April 27, 1909) only to the victory of the Young Turks; moreover he was the first constitutional ruler…

Ṣart

(534 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ ΣάρδειΣ of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī write Sārd), capital of the Lydian Kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Ṣart Čai (Pactolus) a little southward to the spot where this river joins the Gedīz Čai (Hermus). Although in the later Byzantine period Sardes had lost much of its former importance (as a metropolitan see) and been outflanked by Magnesia (Turkish Mag̲h̲nīsā) and Philadelphia (Ālā S̲h̲ehr, q. v.), it still was one of the larger towns, when the Seld̲juḳ Turks, in the xith century, made incursions int…

Muḥammad I

(855 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, according to the current view, the fifth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, reigned, after the Empire’s restoration in 1413, as sole acknowledged ruler until his death in 1421. Like many details of the first century of Ottoman history, the year of the birth of this Sulṭān is unknown; Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 66 gives 781 or 791 (1379 or 1389). It is commonly agreed, that he was the youngest of the six sons of Bāyazīd I, which probably has made von Hammer accept the later date. At the time of Timur’s invasion, Muḥammad resided at Amasia, but he w…

Marzubān

(423 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Arabic form of the title of provincial governors in the Sāsānian empire, especially of the “wardens of the marches”, the “markgraves”. The word is derived from marz which still means in Persian a frontier district (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie, p. 218) and is found in Pehlevi in the form maržpān (in the Kār-nāmak; cf. H. S. Nyberg, Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi, i., Upsala 1928, p. 54) which suggests a north Īrānian origin (cf. Lentz, Z. I. I., iv. 255, 295), as we find alongside of marz also mard̲j̲ in Persian (Horn, loc. cit.). The ¶ title is not found, however, before the Sās…

K̲h̲āḳānī

(300 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a Turkish poet of the second half of the xvith century. His proper name was Muḥammad Bey and he was a descendant of Āyās Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] who was Grand Wazīr under Suleimān I. His life was not eventful; according to Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī he was mutafarriḳa and sand̲j̲āḳ-bey. Ḵh̲āḳānī owes his fame to a not very long māt̲h̲namī called Ḥilya-i S̲h̲arīfa, written in a tripodic ramal-metre. This poem is a paraphrase of an Arabic text known as al-Ḥilya al-Nabawīya containing a traditional account of the prophet’s personal appearance; each of the enumerated features is comment…

Talk̲h̲īṣ

(87 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic maṣdar meaning to make a précis, means in the official language of Turkey a document in which the most important matters are summed up for presentation to the Sulṭān. The officials who had these papers prepared and presented them to the Sulṭān were the grand vizier and the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām. On account of its change of significance, talk̲h̲īṣ is included among the g̲h̲alaṭāt-i mas̲h̲hūra, cf. Muḥammad Hafīd, al-Durar al-muntak̲h̲abāt al-mant̲h̲ūra fī Iṣlāḥ al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra (1221 a. h., p. 115). (J. H. Kramers)

Ḳismet

(171 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a., t.); this word, the Arabic meaning “distribution” of which is a synonym of iḳtisām later came to mean lot, portion and developed as a third meaning “the lot which is destined for every man°. It is this meaning of the Turkish that is best known. In Turkish however ḳismet is not so much an expression of theological doctrines concerning predestination (cf. ḳadar) as of a practical fatalism which accepts with resignation the blows and vicissitudes of fate. The same sentiment is often expressed among Persian and Turkish poets by the words falak and čark̲h̲ to express the irrational and i…

Sulṭān

(2,943 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a.), 1. a title which first appears in the fourth (xith) century in the sense of a powerful ruler, an independent sovereign of a certain territory. The word is of frequent occurrence in the Ḳurʾān, most often with the meaning of a moral or magical authority supported by proofs or miracles which afford the right to make a statement of religious import. The prophets received this sulṭān from Allāh (cf. e. g. Sūra xiv. 12, 13) and the idolators are often invited to produce a sulṭān in support of their beliefs. Thus the dictionaries (like the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, v. 159) explain the word as synony…

Skanderbeg

(850 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
is the name by which the national hero of Albania is generally known in Europe. It is based on an Italianised or Latinised form of the name Iskandar Beg, which was given him in his youth when he was serving at the Ottoman court; the name contains an allusion to that of Alexander the Great. His real name was George Kastriota, of the family of the Kastriotas of Serbian origin, who had once ruled Epirus and Southern Albania. Born about 1404, he and his three elder brothers were given as hostages to Sulṭān Murād II, so that he was brought up in the Muslim religion as ič og̲h̲lan. His ability won him the …

Sulaimān II

(746 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twentieth Ottoman Sulṭān, reigned from 1687 to 1691. He was born in 1052 (1642) (on 15th Muḥarram = April 15, according to von Hammer, G. O. R., the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī gives the 25th Ṣafar = May 25), and was the son of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm; from the accession of his brother Muḥammad IV he lived the life of a prisoner in the palace with his brother Aḥmad. On the deposition of Muḥammad IV, the result of the defeat of the Turkish army at Mohács, Sulaimān was placed on the throne on Nov. 8, 1637, mainly through the efforts of the ḳāʾim-maḳām Köprülü Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a. In the precarious position of t…

Seerd

(780 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Siʿird or Saïrd, a little town in the frontier region between Armenia and Turkish Kurdistān, situated in a valley formed by the Bohtān Ṣu and the river of Bidlis about 30 miles S.W. of Bidlis and about 18 north of the Tigris. The little river Kezer runs near Seʿerd; but it is the Bohtān Ṣu which is sometimes called Seʿerd Ṣu (Söʿörd Su in von Moltke). litis name is also found in al-Masʿūdī, the earliest Arab geographer to mention Seʿerd; he calls the Bohtān Ṣu ¶ (ed. Paris 1840, i. 227); likewise al-Idrīsī (transl. Jaubert, ii. 172). The orthography varies much: (al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, Ibn al-At̲h̲īr…

S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām

(3,638 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
is one of the honorific titles which first appear in the second half of the fourth century a. h. While other honorific titles compounded with Islām (like ʿIzz-, Ḏj̲alāl-, Saif al-Islām) were borne by persons exercising secular power (notably the viziers of the Fāṭimids, cf. van Berchem, Z. D. P. V., xvi., p. 101), the title of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām has always been reserved for ʿulamāʾ and mystics, like other titles of honour whose first part is S̲h̲aik̲h̲ (e. g. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Dīn; the surname of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Fatyā is given by Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn to the jurist Asad b. al-Furāt; cf. Muḳaddima, transl.…

Kisāʾī

(369 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ḥakīm Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abū Isḥāḳ (or Abu ’l-Ḥasan) Kisāʾī, a Persian poet of the second half of the fourth century a. h. belonging to the first period of Persian poetry. He was ¶ born in Merw on Wednesday 26th S̲h̲awwāl 341 (March 16, 953) and according to most authorities died in 392 (1002); one source however (Wāliḥ, quoted by Ethé), says that he reached a very advanced age. A few of his poems have been preserved in the different tad̲h̲kīra: they have been published by Ethé ( Die Lieder des Kisâʾî, S.-B. Bayr. Ak., 1874, p. 133—149). These poems illustrate the whole repertory of Persia…

Kirmān

(5,340 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a Persian province and of its present capital. The name of the town was derived later from that of the province. The usual pronunciation is Kirmān, although, according to the tradition of Arab scholarship (Yāḳūt, iv. 263) the form Karman is more correct; the name, in any case, goes back to the form Carmania, which is found in Strabo (xv. 2, 14), and which in its turn is said to be derived from the name of an ancient capital, Carmana (Ptolemy, Geography, vi. 8; Ammianus Marcellinus, xxiii. 6, 48). According to Marquart ¶ ( Ērānšahr, p. 30) the name Carmania replaced that of Yūti…

Muṣṭafā II

(872 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the twenty-second Ottoman sulṭān, was a son of Muḥammad IV. Born in 1664, he succeeded to his uncle Aḥmad II on February 6, 1695, at a time when the empire was at war with Austria, Poland, Russia und Venice. The new sulṭān in a remarkable k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf proclaimed a Holy War and carried out, against the decision of the Dīwān, his desire to take part in the campaign against Austria. Before his departure a mutiny of the Janissaries had cost the grand vizier Defterdār ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a his life (April 24, 1693) and the campaign was led by the new grand viz…

al-Muḳaddasī

(857 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Bannāʾ al-S̲h̲aʾmī al-Muḳaddasī al-maʿrūf bi ’l-Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ārī as he is called on the first page of the Berlin manuscript (Cat. Ahlwardt, N°. 6034), is the author of the most original and at the same time one of the most valuable geographical treatises in Arabic literature. The name-form al-Muḳaddasī, denoting his origin from Jerusalem, goes back to Sprenger, who brought the Berlin manuscript from India and made this author first known in Europe (A. Sprenger, Die Post-und Reiserouten des Orients, Leipzig 1864, p. xviii.…

Muḥammad III

(651 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, thirteenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born on May 16,1567, the son of Murād III and the Venetian lady Baffa, and reigned from January 27, 1593 until his death, December 22, 1603. He was the last sulṭān who, as crown prince, had resided as governor in Mag̲h̲nisa. During his short reign he does not seem to have exercised any great influence on the policy of the Empire, being mostly under the influence of his mother who, as wālide sulṭān, intervened in affairs of state through her protégés within and without the palace. Much against her will but on the insistence of a …

Ḳod̲j̲a Ili

(406 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ in the old territorial division of the Ottoman empire. This sand̲j̲aḳ covered the north-west part of Bithynia, including the whole of the shore of the Gulf of Nicomedia. In the north it was bounded by the Black Sea, in the east by the Bosphorus and the Gulf of Nicomedia, in the south by the sand̲j̲aḳ of Brusa and in the east by that of Boli; on this side the Saḳaria forms the natural boundary but in the administrative division the eastern bank of this river was included in the sand̲j̲aḳ. The name Ḳod̲j̲a Hi is connected with Aḳče Ḳod̲j̲a, the famous g̲h̲āzī and companion-in-…

al-Muḳaṭṭam

(684 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the part of the range of hills west of the Nile, which lies immediately to the east of Cairo and from which the mountains take a north-easterly direction, bordering the Nile delta to the south-east. It reaches a height of about 600 feet and consists, as does the greater part of the north African mountains, of limestome (cf. Description de l’Egypte, Etat moderne, Paris 1822, ii/ii. 751). The name Muḳaṭṭam (the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs records also the popular form al-Muḳaṭṭab) does not go back to a pre-Muḥammadan nomenclature, nor is it considered, in spite of its correct Ar…

Kirmāns̲h̲āh

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town lying in a plain among the mountain ranges that border the Iranian plateau on the south-west, now the capital of a Persian province between Kurdistān on the north and Luristān on the south. The geographical position of the town is approximately 34° 20′ North Lat. and 47° East Long.; the plain is traversed by the Ḳara Ṣu which runs to the north-east of the town in a south-easterly direction, joining the river Gāmāsiyāb (formerly the Gāwmāsā Rūd) farther south; the latter is a tributary of the Kerk̲h̲a [q.v.] and the most important water-course of the province. It was probably in this …

Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(437 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of several places in Asia Minor. The meaning — if it is not ¶ simply a corruption of Ḳod̲j̲a Ḥiṣār — is “castle of the ram” and it may be compared with proper names like Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār, Toḳlu Ḥiṣār, Keči Ḥiṣār. 1. Ḳoč Ḥiṣār in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Kang̲h̲ri is a little town on the Dewrek Cai, twenty-five miles north of the town of Kang̲h̲ri. It is on the high road from Constantinople to Boli, Amasia and Erzerūm, between Ḳarad̲j̲a Wīrān and Ṭosia. According to Ewliyā Čelebi, this Ḳoč Ḥiṣār was captured by ʿOt̲h̲mān in 708 (1308) and comp…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Lala

(654 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a famous military commander in the Ottoman history of the xvith century. The date of his birth is not given. He was a native of Ṣoḳol, the ¶ same Bosnian locality from which came the grand vizier Ṣoḳolli [q. v.], and began his service in the imperial serāy. He rose in rank under the grand vizier Aḥmad (1553—1555), but was not in favour with the letter’s successor Rustam Pas̲h̲a, who made him in 1556 lālā to prince Selīm with the object of ruining him. The outcome of this nomination was the contrary of what was expected; Muṣṭafā became the chief originator of the intr…

Lepanto

(901 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the Italian form of the name of the Greek town Naupactos which the Turks call Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. This is how the Turkish form is transcribed, e. g. by Leunclavius ( Annales Turcici, p. 35) while von Hammer ( G. O. R., iii. 318) transcribes it as Aina Bak̲h̲ti̊, which he translates ¶ “Spiegelglück”; in view of the Greek form however it is very probable that the Turks originally pronounced it Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. The town is situated in the ancient Locris, north of the strait which leads from the Ionian Sea towards the Gulf of Corinth, known since the middle ages as the Gulf of Lepanto. After forming from t…

Sulaimān I

(4,968 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the tenth and the greatest of the Ottoman Sulṭāns, reigned from 1520 to 1566. The Turks call him Ḳānūnī Sulṭān Sulaimān and western authors Soliman the Magnificent. Some Western historians like Leunclavius and, more recently, Jorga call him Sulaimān II, the first Sulaimān having been, according to them, the son of Bāyazīd I who lived at Adrianople. In Turkey however the opinion that Sulaimān the Legislator is the first of the name has prevailed; he is always called Sulaimān Ḵh̲ān Awwal and the ten s̲h̲erfe of the four minarets of the Sulaimānīya mosque signify, according to the Ḥadīḳat al-…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(678 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Viceroy (Ḵh̲edive) of Egypt from 1854 to 1863. Muḥammad Saʿīd, youngest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā, was born in 1822. His father had a very high opinion of this, his fourth, son whom he sent when only 19 to Constanti…

Terd̲j̲umān

(1,245 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, turkicised form of the Arabic tard̲j̲amān (cf. Muḥammad Ḥafīd, al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra

Selānīk

(2,473 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the town of Salonika in Macedonia, situated at the foot of the Gulf of Salonika, to the east of the mouth of the Wardar and at the foot of a hill which commands it on the north-east. It is the ancient Greek town of Θεσσαλονίκη, founded on the site of Therma by Cassander, who gave the new city the name of his wife, the sister of Alexander the Great (Strabo, VII, vii. 4). Towards the eleventh century, the popular form Σαλονίκιον appears (

Mūsā Čelebi

(509 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, one of the younger sons of the Ottoman sulṭān Bāyazīd I. According to some sources he was younger than his brother Muḥammad I [q. v.], who is generally considered as the youngest. Mūsā had been taken prisoner in the battle of Angora (1402) and was left by Tīmūr in custody with the Germiyān Og̲h̲lū Yaʿḳūb Beg. The latter sent him afterwards to his brother Muḥam…

Sulṭān Öñü

(515 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the ancient name of the part of Phrygia in Asia Minor, situated to the N.W. of Eski S̲h̲ehir, which was the birthplace of the Ottoman power. The name existed already in the time of the Seld̲j̲ūḳs, for it is mentioned in the Chronicle of Ibn Bībī (Houtsma, Recueil de textes relatifs a l’histoire des Seldjoucides, iii. 217) as a frontier district of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ empire, the protection of which was trusted to frontier warders ( uč begleri) such as Ertog̲h̲rul. Among the early Ottoman historians Nes̲h̲rī (ed. Nöldeke, Z.D.M.G., xiii. 190) mentions Sulṭān Öñü as the place where Erto…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(586 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, vizier and, according to some sources, grand vizier under Sulṭān Muḥammad II. As his surname indicates he was a Greek renegade. After having had an education in the palace he was destined for a military career and became at one time beylerbey. The dates of his birth and of his military advancements are not recorded. He had taken part in the final campaign of Muḥammad II against Ḳaramān in 1466 and was charged by the sulṭān with the transfer of parts of the population of the conquered regions to Constantinople, instead of …

Ṣoḳolli

(1,485 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, surnamed “Ṭawīl”, “the Tall”, one of the most famous of Turkish grand viziers. He was born in the early years of the xvth century in the village of Sokol in Bosnia. His family was called Sokolewitch, of which Ṣoḳolli is the Turkish form. According to a panegyrical biography written about 1570 entitled Ḏj̲awāhir al-Manāḳib (cf. T. O. E. M., N°. 29, p. 257 sqq,), which is regarded as the best authority for the youth of Ṣoḳolli, Sokol means “falcon’s nest”. He was the eldest son and was taken from his parents under the

Murād IV

(1,177 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth son of sulṭān Aḥmad I, and seventeenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born 28th Ḏj̲umādā I 1021 (July 27, 1612) and called to the throne as a result of the mutiny of the Janissaries and Sipāhīs, which had forced Muṣṭafā I to abdicate, on September 11, 1623. When the lives of Murād and his brothers were in danger, they had been hidden by Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a. But even after his enthronement Murād IV’s position was far from strong. The turbulent and continuously mutinying Janissaries and Sipāhīs were the real masters of the situation and the seven grand viziers that succeeded eac…

Muṣṭafā

(959 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of several princes belonging to the Ottoman dynasty: 1. Muṣṭafā Čelebi, eldest son of Bāyazīd I; the date of his birth is not rec…

Muṣṭafā I

(455 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman Sulṭān, was born in the year 1000 (1591) as son of Muḥammad III. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sulṭān, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmad I at the latter’s death on November 22, 1617. But his weakmindedness — which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmad — made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmad’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself entitled to the succession, had little difficulty in procuring Muṣṭafā’s deposition in a meeting of the Imperial Dīwān, by …

Muẓaffar al-Dīn

(644 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, fifth S̲h̲āh of Persia of the Ḳād̲j̲ār [q. v.] dynasty, was born on March 25, 1853. He was S̲h̲āh Nāṣir al-Dīn’s second son, the eldest son Ẓill al-Sulṭān being of lower birth by his mother. As crown prince Muẓaffar al-Dīn had been some time governor of Ād̲h̲arbaid̲j̲ān (a description of him as crown prince in Curzon,

Marzubān

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
b. Rustam, a prince of the Bāwand dynasty of Ṭabarīstān [q. v.] regarded as the original author of the Marzubān-nāma, a work in Persian prose containing a series of short stories and fables of a moral and didactic character. This book is known in two versions in elegant Persian of the xiiith century, the author of one of which was Saʿd al-Dīn al-Warāwīnī; he dedicated it to Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Rabīb al-Dīn, vizier of Uzbek b. Muḥammad b. Ildegīz, Atābeg of Ad̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān from 1210 to 1225. These dates give us probable limits for the composition of th…

Manūf

(259 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of two towns, in the region between the two main Nile arms called al-Ḏj̲azīra, generally distinguished as Manūf al-ʿUlyā and Manūf al-Suflā. The latter was situated on the right bank of the western Nile arm, while the former lay more to the east on a smaller canal. Both are described by the geographers as large towns, surrounded by fertile districts and inhabited by wealthy people, especially Manūf al-ʿUlyā, where, according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 92), there resided a governor. The

Maḥmūd I

(1,908 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty fourth Ottoman Sulṭān, reigned 1143—1168 (1730—1754). He was born on the 3rd Muḥarram 1108 (Aug. 2, 1696), the son of Muṣṭafā II — the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī gives the date 7th Ramaḍān 1107 (April 10, 1696) — and had spent his life in seclusion up to his accession. He came to the throne through the mutiny of the Janissaries under Patrona Ḵh̲alīl, a mutiny which cost the grand vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, the Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a and the Kiaya Beg their lives, and forced Sulṭān Aḥmad III to abdicate in favour of Maḥmūd; these events took place on the 17th Rabīʿ I, 1143 (Oct. 1, 1730). The muti…

S̲h̲uster

(1,442 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
or S̲h̲ūs̲h̲ter, among the Arabs Tustar, a town in the Persian province of ʿArabistān, the ancient Ḵh̲ūzistān, situated in ¶ about 49° East Long, and 32° N. Lat. It stands on a clif to the west of which runs the river Kārūn [q. v.], the middle course of which begins a few miles north of the town. Th…

Ṣu Bas̲h̲i̊

(621 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, ancient military title in countries of Turkish civilization. Although later popular etymology has always regarded the first element as the word ṣu, “water”, this interpretation ¶ is probably erroneous. In old Eastern Turkish zu (very possibly taken from Chinese) signified army and ṣu-bas̲h̲i̊ therefore meant commander of the army (cf. Maḥmūd Kas̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān Lug̲h̲at al-Turk, iii. 156; Houtsma, Ein türkisch-arabisches Glossar, Leyden 1884, p. 14, 30). It is not surprising, however, that this title has been connected with the word designating water, …

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Yegen

(395 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Maḥmūd II. He was called Yegen “the Nephew” because he stood in that relationship to Kel Yūsuf Efendi, a high official in the financial administration ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, iv. 659); he also began his career by holding different financial offices, and was also ḳapi̊ k i ayasi̊ of the grand vizier Topal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a (1732). In 1737 he became ḳāʾim-maḳām in Constantinople during the absence of the grand vizier ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a. The latter was successful that year against the Austrians on the Danube frontier (taking of Fetḥ Islā…

Ḳoyund̲j̲i̊ḳ

(496 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a little village, which was built on the great group of artificial mounds, that cover the ruins of the royal palaces of Nineveh, opposite the town of al-Mawṣil, to the east of the Tigris. The name of this village is not found in the middle ages nor in the Turkish authors of the xviith century; it has been thought, however, that the name is connected with the dynasty of the Ḳara Ḳoyunli, which reigned in this region ¶ in the xvth century (von Oppenheim). After being for the most part destroyed by Kurds in 1836, the village was moved to the alluvial plain between the mounds …

Muḥammad Gurd̲j̲ī Pas̲h̲a

(659 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Two Turkish grand-viziers are known under this name. 1. The one who is also called k̲h̲ādim muḥammad pas̲h̲a began his political career after having been a eunuch in the imperial palace; in 1604 he became wālī in Egypt, where he was able to establish some order; after that he was twice ḳāʾim-maḳām of the grand-vizierate in the capital, in 1611 and in 1615; in the meantime he had held governorships in Erzerūm, Bosnia and Belgrad. He was called to the grand-vizierate in the days of Sulṭān Muṣṭafā I’s second reign, when the Janissaries and the Sipā…

K̲h̲orsābād

(354 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a place noted for its Assyrian excavations, situated on the plain to the northeast of Mosul, at a distance of 12 miles (5 hours by caravan) from the town and eight miles from the Tigris at the south west of the foot of the Ḏj̲abal Maḳlūb, and on the left bank of the Ḵh̲awser. At this place the village of Ḵh̲orsābād was situated in the year 1843; inhabited by the S̲h̲abak [q. v.] it was the village that Botta, the first explorer bought, and transplanted the inhabitants to another place in the plain, so that ¶ he might be able to begin excavating. Ḵh̲orsābād is mentioned by Yāḳūt …

Muḥammad VI

(550 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Waḥīd al-Dīn, last Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, was born on January 14, 1861, as son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd. He was called to the throne on July 3, 1918, after the death of his brother Muḥammad V Res̲h̲ād, the former heir to the throne Yūsuf ʿIzz al-Dīn, son of ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, having died in 1916. When on October 30, 1918, nearly four months after his accession, the armistice of Mudros was signed, he was the ruler of an empire that seemed to be at the mercy of its former enemies, whose milita…

S̲h̲arīf Pas̲h̲a

(804 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Egyptian statesman in the reigns of the Ḵh̲edives Ismāʿīl and Tawfīḳ. He was of Turkish origin and was born in 1823 in Cairo where his father was then acting as ḳāḍī ’l-ḳuḍāt sent by the Sulṭān. When some ten years later the family was again temporarily in Cairo, Muḥammad ʿAlī had the boy sent to the military school recently founded by him. Henceforth his whole career was to be spent in the Egyptian service. S̲h̲arīf was a member of the “Egyptian mission” sent to Paris for higher education (cf. the article k̲h̲edīve) which included the future Ḵh̲edives Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a, Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲…

Ṣafad

(1,459 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Upper Galilee, 30 miles East of ʿAkkā and N. E. of the Lake of Tiberias, about 1600 feet above sea level on a bill which al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī calls Kanʿān (so also Cuinet) and which is called Ḏj̲ibāl ʿĀmila in Yāḳūt, iii. 399 (whose statements are otherwise wrong; on this see Gaudefroy-Demombynes, p. 23). It was only through the Crusades that it first attained importance, for before the xiiith century it is not mentioned by any Arab geographer. But it must have already existed in the second century as Ṣephath is found in the Jerusalem Talmud (Tract. Ros̲h̲ Ha…

Murād I

(2,007 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, According to the common tradition the third ruler of the Ottoman state, was a son of Ork̲h̲ān and the Byzantine lady Nīlūfer. Although some Ottoman sources profess to know the year of his birth ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 74 gives the year 726 = 1326), this date, like all dates given by Turkish sources relating to this period, is far from certain. The name Murād (Greek sources such as Phrantzes have ’ΑμουράτηΣ, from which later Latin sources make Amurath, while contemporary Latin sources from Italy have Moratibei) must have orig…

al-Manṣūra

(176 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, large town in Lower Egypt, on the right bank of the Damietta branch of the Nile, capital of the province al-Daḳahlīya. Another canal or branch of the Nile went from here to As̲h̲mūm in a north-eastern direction. It was originally a camping place for the army, founded in 616 (1219) by al-Malik al-Kāmil, when he tried to recapture Dimyāṭ, then occupied by the Crusaders. In 1249 the Crusaders were defeated in the neighbourhood of al-Manṣūra by al-Sulṭān al-Muʿaẓẓam Tūrāns̲h̲āh, on which occasion …

Manf

(321 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or, according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ (p. 116), Minf, the ancient Egyptian capital Memphis, on the left bank of the Nile, not far from Cairo, is well known in Arabic literature as a very old town. The geographers cite, among the kūra’s of Egypt, that of Manf and Wasīm (cf. e.g. Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲bih, p. 81), but the town was already ruined in Muḥammadan times (al-Yaʿḳūbī, Kit. al-Buldān, p. 331) —by ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ, according to Abu ’l-Fidāʾ ( loc. cit.) — and was no more than a village in the time of Ibn Ḥawḳal (p. 106). Most Arab writers speak of the ancient traditions connected with Manf, often t…

Selīm II

(1,601 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, eleventh Sulṭān of Turkey, reigned from 974—982 (1566—1574). He was born probably in 930 (1524). He was the son of Suleimān I and the celebrated Ḵh̲nrrem Sulṭān (Roxelana) ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 39, gives three different dates) and was the eldest of the latter’s four children: Selīm, Bāyazīd, Ḏj̲ahāngīr (d. 1553) and Mihrmāh (became wife of the Grand Vizier Rustem Pas̲h̲a). Ḵh̲urrem Sulṭān favoured Bāyazīd and to secure his succession to the throne she brought about by her intrigues and influence over Suleimān the exe…

Muḥammad Damad Pas̲h̲a

(489 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grandvizier, also called Öküz Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, was the son of a farrier of Constantinople and was educated (rather unusual at that time for a boy from Constantinople) in the imperial palace for a military career. He left the palace as siliḥdār, but we do no not know his career until he was appointed, in 1016 (1607—1608), governor of Egypt. Here he was successful in the energetic suppression of a Mamlūk revolt and when he returned in 1610 to the capital with two years’ tribute, he was appointed Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a, being at the same time…

Limni

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish form of the name of the island of Lemnos in the Aegean Sea between Mount Athos and the mainland of Asia Minor about 50 miles S. E. of the entrance to the Dardanelles. In ancient times a possession of Athens, in the middle ages it belonged to the Byzantine empire;. in this period, in 901, the island was sacked by the Muslim inhabitants of Crete. Towards the end of the middle ages Lemnos had passed into the hands of the Italians who called the island Stalimene (formed with the addition o…

Toḳat

(619 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Asia Minor, situated in the northern part of Cappadocia, to the south of the middle course of the Tozanli̊ Ṣu, the ancient Iris. The town is situated on both sides of a mountain valley opening to the north and between the town and the river there is a beautiful plain. In a northeastern direction, facing the river, lay in ancient times the well-known town of Comana Pontica, the name of which still survives in the village of Gümenek; the site of Toḳat was occupied by a fortress called Dazimon (on this identification cf. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, London 1890, p. 329 sqq.…

Ḳūhistān

(2,162 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(p.) or Ḳuhistān is the arabicised form of the Persian name Ḳūhistān meaning a mountainous country (derived from kūh, “mountain” with the suffix- istān) and corresponds to the Arabic designation al-Ḏj̲ibāl. As the Iranian plateau is very mountainous, we find many more or less extensive areas in it to which the name Ḳūhistān has been given, as Yāḳūt has already remarked (iv. 204). Many of these names have disappeared in course of time. Thus Ḳazwīnī (ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 228) says that the term Ḳūhistān is used for Media, which other geographers always call al Ḏj̲ibāl. In the S̲h̲āh-nāma of Fir…

K̲h̲edīw

(15,652 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(Khedive). The Persian word k̲h̲adīw or k̲h̲idīw meaning “lord” is one of the titles occasionally given to Muḥammadan rulers since the Middle Ages (cf. the xvith century Turkish historian ʿĀlī, Kunh al-Ak̲h̲bār, Constantinople, v. 17). This title was conferred in 1867 by the Ottoman Sulṭān ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz on Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a, the viceroy of Egypt. Though, since the firmān of 1841, the function of Pas̲h̲a of Egypt was already hereditary in the family of Muḥammad ʿAlī, Ismāʿīl desired a title indicating that his rank was higher than that of the other Ottom…

Mūs̲h̲

(764 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, town in Western Armenia near the southern bank of the Murād Ṣu (Arsanias), some 70 km. as the crow flies to the west of Ḵh̲ilāṭ. In pre-Muḥammadan times it was the principal town of the district of Taraun (Hübschmann, Idg. Forsch., xvi. 326; J.Saint-Martin, Mémoires Historiques et Géographiques sur l’Arménie, i., Paris 1818, p. 102). In Islāmic times the name Ṭarūn ¶ (as spelled by Yāḳūt, iv. 534) is sometimes used for the town itself as in Ṭabarī, iii. 1408 (cf. J. Markwart, Süd-Armenien und die Tigrisquellen, Vienna 1930, p. 354). The tradition of the Armenian historians conne…

Ḳara Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊

(630 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, leader of a serious rebellion in Asia Minor from 1599 to 1602. His proper name was ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm and he was chief of the corporation of Segbāns ( Segbān bölük bas̲h̲i̊). His followers consisted of Kurds, Turkomans and a large body of soldiers who had fled from the army in Hungary, chiefly on account of the Grand Vizier Čig̲h̲āla’s harsh and cruel treatment of them. They are therefore called Firārīs; another name is Ḏj̲alālīs; their rebellion is known as the Ḵh̲urūd̲j̲-i d̲j̲alāliyān. Ḳara Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊’s first act was the occupation of Ruhā or Urfa (= Edessa) in 1008 a. h. The former Beglerbe…

Ṣubḥī Muḥammad

(177 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish historiographer. He was born at the beginning of the xviiith century (the date is unknown) as son of Beylikd̲j̲i Ḵh̲alīl Fehmī Efendi. He entered upon a long administrative career, beginning with the office of dīwān kātibi. Soon after, before 1150/ 1737, he was appointed waḳʿa-nuwīs as successor to S̲h̲ākir Ḥusein Bey and he combined this position with other functions till the end of the year 1156 (Feb. 1744) when he was appointed beylikd̲j̲i. The waḳʿa-mtwīslik was then given into the charge of Sulaimān ʿIzzī [q. v.]. Ṣubhī Efendi died in Ṣafar 1183 (June 1769). His Taʾrīk̲h̲ was…

Ḳaramān-Og̲h̲lu

(4,097 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the most important of the various Turkoman dynasties, which arose in Asia Minor after the break up of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire at the end of the viith (xiiith) century. They were for a time the most serious rivals of the Ottomans. The name goes back in the first place to the Turkoman chief Ḳaramān, who attained a certain degree of independence during the Mongol troubles in the middle of the viith (xiiith) century and was granted by the Sultan Rukn al-Dīn a territory, from which he himself had come, in Cilicia. His native district was then known as Ḳamar al-Dīn-Ili (no…

Ḳara Arslān

(877 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
ibn dāʾūd with the laḳab fak̲h̲r al-dīn, third Amīr of the line of the Ortoḳids [q. v.] of Ḥiṣn Kaifā and great-grandson of the founder of this dynasty. Statements differ regarding the year in which he succeeded his father Dāʾūd b. Suḳmān. According to Abū ’l-Farad̲j̲ Barhebraeus ( Chronicon, ed. Bedjan, Paris 1890, p. 305), Dāʾūd died in the Greek year 1455 (1143—44). The Arabic sources do not give the year; in any case Stanley Lane-Poole, who bases his view that Dāʾūd did not die till about 543 (1148) on a mistaken interpretation of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr ( Kāmil, xi. 73) ( Coins of the Urtuḳí Turkománs

Üsküdār

(699 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the oldest and largest quarter of the Turkish Constantinople on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus, lying at the foot of the hill of Bulg̲h̲urlu, where the Asiatic coast advances farthest to the west, opposite the Tower of Leander (Ḳi̊z Ḳulesi). In ancient times the small town of Chrysopolis (already mentioned in Xenophon’s Anabasis, book vi., ch. vi. 38) existed on this site; it was then a suburb of the still older colony of Chalcedon (now Ḳāḍī Kiöy). Towards the end of the Byzantine Empire the name Scutari had come into use (cf. Phrantzes, ed. Bonn 1838, p. 111; ὅπου τὰ…

ʿOt̲h̲mān III

(291 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty-fifth sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire and son of Muṣṭafā II, succeeded his brother Maḥmūd I on Dec. 14, 1754. He was born on Jan. 2, 1699 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 56) and had therefore reached an advanced age when he was called to the throne. No events of political importance took place in his reign. The period of peace which had begun with the peace of Belgrade in 1739 continued; at home only a series of seditious outbreaks in the frontier provinces indicated the weakness of the Empire. In the absence of any outst…

Tewfīḳ Pas̲h̲a

(896 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ḵh̲edive of Egypt (1879—1892), was born on December 15, 1852 as the eldest son of the Ḵh̲edive Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a. He was educated in Egypt and began his political career at the age of 19 as president of the Council of State ( al-mad̲j̲lis al-k̲h̲uṣūṣī). On March 10, 1879, after Nubar Pas̲h̲a had resigned, he was appointed Prime Minister by his father. In his cabinet, as was the case in the former, an Englishman was Minister of Finance and a Frenchman Minister of Public Works. But already on April 9 of that year, Ismāʿīl, by a kind of “cou…

Murād V

(430 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ottoman Sulṭān from May 31 till Sept. 7, 1876. He was born on Sept. 21, 1840 as son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd and was deprived of all influence on public affairs during the reign of his elder brother ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, who had the plan of altering the succession in favour of his own descendants, so as to deprive Murād of his rights. Murād was called to the throne by the coup d’état of the recently established cabinet, of which Midḥat Pas̲h̲a [q. v.], Muḥammad Rus̲h̲dī and Ḥusain ʿAwnī were the le…

Was̲h̲mgīr b. Ziyār

(827 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Abū Ṭālib (and according to his coins Ẓahīr al-Dawla) or better Wus̲h̲mgīr, if the name means „catcher of quails” (cf. al-Masʿūdī, Murād̲j̲, ix. 30, note), second ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty, reigned 935—965. He only left his native land Ḏj̲īlān, after his brother Mardāwīd̲j̲ [q. v.] had come to power, and had lived until that time the primitive mountaineer life of his people (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, viii. 182). Under Mardāwīd̲j̲ he conquered Iṣfahān and drove from there ʿAlī b. Būye, who had taken that town when he was i…

Selīm III

(3,661 words)

Author(s): Krāmers, J. H.
, the twenty-eighth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, reigned from 1203 (1789) to 1222 (1807). He was born on Ḏj̲umādā I 26, 1175 (Dec. 24, 1761), a son of Sulṭān Muṣṭafā III and the Wālide Sulṭān Mihr-S̲h̲āh (d. 1805; see Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 83) and succeeded on Rad̲j̲ab II, 1203 (Apr. 7, 1789), to his uncle ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I [q. v.] who had died on that day. Selīm’s reign is characterised by disastrous wars against the European powers and revolts in the interior, showing the weakness of the Ottoman Empire, and at the same time by th…

Olčaitu K̲h̲udābanda

(703 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, eighth Īlk̲h̲ān of Persia, reigned from 1304 till 1317. He was, like his predecessor G̲h̲āzān, a son of Arg̲h̲ūn and a great-grandson of Hūlāgū. At his accession ¶ he was 24 years of age. In his youth he had been given the surname of Ḵh̲arbanda, for which different explanations are given (cf. the poem by Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn reproduced on p. 46 of E. G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia, iii. p. 46 sq. and Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii. 115), but E. Blochet, in his Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols (G. M. S., xii. 51), has explained the name as a Mongolian word, meaning “the third”. The Byzantin…

Maḥalla

(176 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic word which, like maḥall from the same root, originally means a place where one makes a halt. Maḥalla thus came to have the special meaning of a quarter of a town, a meaning which has also passed into Turkish (e. g. the Yeñi Maḥalle quarter in Constantinople), into Persian and Hindūstānī (where the popular pronunciation is muḥalla); the term formerly applied to a quarter of a town used to be dār (as in old Bag̲h̲dād). The maḥalla’s are often under the administration of a special official called muk̲h̲tār. In Egypt the word maḥalla is frequently found as the first element in the…

Selīm I

(4,293 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, ninth sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, known in history as Yawuz Sulṭān Selīm, reigned 918—926(=1512—1520). He was one of the sons of Bāyazīd II, born in 872 (= 1467/68) or 875 (= 1470/71) ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 38). Towards the end of his father’s reign, he was governor of the sand̲j̲aḳ of Trebizond. Although his brother Aḥmed, older than he but younger than prince Ḳorḳud, had been designated his successor by Bāyazīd, Selīm also cherished designs on the throne, knowing that he had the support of the greater part of the army.…

Tell al-ʿAmarna

(360 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, site on the right bank of the Nile, opposite the little town of Mallawī, in the province of Minya. The distance between the Nile and the mountains (here called Ḏj̲abal al-S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Saʿīd) is about 3 miles, while to the north and the south the mountains come close to the river, leaving an area of about 5 miles in length. One of the villages situated here is called al-Tell (or al-Till); Tell al-ʿAmarna seems to be a “European concoction” (Flinders Pétrie) and is properly Tell al-ʿAmārina, from …

ʿOt̲h̲mān I

(1,888 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, very often called ʿOt̲h̲mān G̲h̲āzī, founder of the dynasty of Ottoman sulṭāns and the first in the traditional series of the members of the dynasty. We are only imperfectly acquainted with the life and personality of this founder of a great empire but we may conclude from the fact that his name ¶ has remained attached to the dynasty of the ʿOt̲h̲mān Og̲h̲ullari̊ or Āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān and is later found in the description of the empire and its inhabitants as ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ or ʿOt̲h̲mānī, that behind the name of ʿOt̲h̲mān there lies a powerful personal…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Alayi̊

(791 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(t.), the “ceremony of the sword” also called taḳlīd al-saif or taḳlīd-i s̲h̲ems̲h̲īr. It was the ceremony of investiture of the Ottoman Sulṭāns, which took the place of coronation. The ceremony generally took place shortly after the baiʿat, or homage to the new Sulṭān. The latter, leaving his palace went by barge with great pomp to the faubourg of Aiyūb. Here he disembarked and went to the türbe of Abū Aiyūb al-Anṣārī [q. v.], accompanied by the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām, the Ḳāḍī ʿAsker, the Grand Vizier, the Naḳīb al-As̲h̲rāf and a li…

Ṣārlīya

(539 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a sect in Northern Mesopotamia to the south of Moṣul. This sect is also a kind of tribe called Sarlīs and lives in six villages, four of which lie on the right bank and two on thé left of the Great Zāb, not far from its junction with the Tigris. The principal village, where the chief lives, is called Warsak, and lies on the right bank; the largest village on the left bank is Sefīye. The Sarīls, like the other sects found in Mesopotamia (Yazīdīs, S̲h̲abaks, Bād̲j̲ūrān), are very uncommunicative with regard to their belief and religious practices, so that the o…

Kūt al-ʿAmāra

(487 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a place in al-ʿIrāḳ, on the left bank of the Tigris, between Bag̲h̲dād and ʿAmāra, 100 miles S. E. of Bag̲h̲dād as the crow flies. Kūt is the Hindustānī word koṭ meaning “fortress” found in other place-names in al-ʿIrāḳ, like Kūt al-Muʿammir; Kūt al-ʿAmāra is often simply called Kūt. Kūt lies opposite the mouth of the S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥaiy, also called al-G̲h̲arrāf, the old canal connecting the Tigris with the Euphrates, which has several junctions with the Euphrates, e. g. at Nāṣirīya and Sūḳ al-S̲h̲uyūk̲h̲. The plains to the no…

Takrīt

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(popular pronunciation Tikrīt, cf. Yāḳūt), a town on the right bank of the Tigris to the north of Sāmarrā (according to Streck the distance is a day’s journey) and at the foot of the range of the Ḏj̲abal Ḥamrīn. Geographically this is the northern frontier district of the ʿIrāḳ. The land is still somewhat undulating; the old town was built on a group of hills, on one of which beside the river, stands the modern town. To the north is a sandstone cliff 200 feet above the level of the river, on which…

Ḳawāla

(526 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(also Cavalla), a seaport on the Aegean Sea, opposite the island of Thasos on the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace. In ancient times Neapolis lay here, the port of the town of Philippi, just as Ḳawāla is now the harbour for the district of Drama. The town is partly built on a promontory which is still surrounded by walls which date from the middle ages; there is a harbour on both sides. An aqueduct has also survived from the middle ages. Ḳawāla was captured by the Turks from the Byzantines…

Ochialy

(536 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish corsair and admiral in the xvith century. He was born in a village of Calabria called Licastelli, about 1500, as, at the time of his death in 1587, he is said to have been over ninety years old. Ochialy is the name by which he is known in Italian sources of the time; the Turkish sources call him Ulud̲j̲ ʿAlī, which name probably was given to him in Northern Africa. It may be the Arabic plural ʿulūd̲j̲ (from ʿild̲j̲), denoting his foreign descent (Hammer, G.O. R.2, ii. 481,751 gives conflicting statements). After being a captured galley slave, he became a Muḥammadan and e…

al-Obolla

(666 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was in the middle ages a large town in the canal region of the Tigris Delta, east of al-Baṣra. It was situated on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Obolla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal is generally given as four farsak̲h̲s or two barīds (al-Maḳdisī). Al-Obolla can be identified with ’Απολόγου ’Εμπόριον, mentioned in the Periplus Maris Erythraei (Geogr. Graeci Minores, i. 285) as lying near the coast. In a story told by al-Masʿūdī ( Mur…

Sīnūb

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town and seaport on the north coast of Asia Minor between the mouths of the Saḳariya [q. v.] and the Ḳi̊zi̊l I̊rmaḳ [q. v.] and about equidistant from the ports of Ṣamsūn and Ineboli, 75 miles N. E. of Ḳasṭamūnī [q. v.]. It is the celebrated Σινώπη of the ancients and has retained this name. Muḥammadan authors know it by the name of Sanūb (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, p. 392 and Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī, Masālik al-Abṣār, N.E., xiii. 361), Ṣanūb (Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, ii. 348), Sināb (Anon. Giese, p. 34; Urud̲j̲ Beg, ed. Babinger, p. 73), Sīnūb (ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ Pas̲h̲a Zāde, and, following him, a…
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