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(1,490 words)

Author(s): Lambton, Ann K.S.
, lit. “river which increases”, a river of the central basin of Persia which flows past Iṣfahān. It is so called because it was believed that springs along its course increased the volume of its water (Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān Taḥwīldār, D̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Isfahān , ed. M. Sotoodeh, Tehran AHS 1342/1963-4, 37). Early authors called it Zinda-Rūd. In the Bundahis̲h̲n it is mentioned as Zendeh Rud (A. Houtum-Schindler, Eastern Persian Irak , London 1898, 17). Abū Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Riḍā Āwī states that it was also known as Zarīn-Rūd, the “Gold…


(14,750 words)

Author(s): Zaman, Muhammad Qasim | Bianquis;, Th. | Eddé, Anne-Marie | Carmona, A. | Lambton, Ann K.S | Et al.
(a.), vizier or chief minister. I. In the Arab World 1. The ʿAbbāsids. Etymology The term wazīr occurs in the Ḳurʾān (XXV, 35: “We gave Moses the book and made his brother Aaron a wazīr with him”), where it has the sense of “helper”, a meaning well attested in early Islamic poetry (for examples, see Goitein, The origin of the vizierate, 170-1). Though several scholars have proposed Persian origins for the term and for the institution, there is no compelling reason to doubt the Arabic provenance of the term or an Arab-Islamic origin and evolution of the institution of the wazīr (cf. Goitein, op. ci…


(1,106 words)

Author(s): Lambton, Ann K.S.
, tuyūl (t.?), a term denoting a grant of money or land in pre-modern Persian lands. The word is not attested before the 9th/15th century [see soyūrg̲h̲āl ]. Doerfer suggests that it is a misspelling of the Čag̲h̲atay Turkish word yatul , “land, domain” (ii, 667-9, no. 1014). Minorsky distinguished the tiyūl from the soyūrg̲h̲āl , as being a temporary grant of the right to collect government taxes while the latter was a hereditary grant ( A soyūrg̲h̲āl of Qāsim b. Jahāngīr Aq-Qoyunlu ( 903/ 1498), in BSOS, ix [1938], 960; see also EI 1, art. Tiyūl ). The term appears t…


(18,908 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J.F.P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
, one of the words most generally used to denote a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in practice were added to the basic taxes of canonical theory. These latter ( zakāt or ʿus̲h̲r , d̲j̲izya and k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , etc.) and their yield in the “classical” period, have been covered in a general survey in an earlier article, Bayt al-māl , and a detailed description of the methodes of assessment and collection will be given under their respective titles, in particular under k̲h̲arād̲j̲; along with k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and zakāt will be included associated taxes and payments…


(48,480 words)

Author(s): De Blois, F.C. | Van Dalen, B. | Humphreys, R.S. | Marin, Manuela | Lambton, Ann K.S | Et al.
(a.) “date, dating, chronology, era”, then also “annals, history”. ¶ I. Dates and Eras in the Islamic World 1. In the sense of “date, dating”, etc. i. Etymology . The non-Arabic origin of this word was recognised by the mediaeval philologists, but the often-cited derivation of the participle muʾarrak̲h̲ “dated”, from a supposed Persian compound māh-rōz “month-day”, is naturally fanciful. In fact, it clearly belongs to the common Semitic root for “moon” and “month”; cf. Akkadian ( w) arḫu , Sabaic wrḫ , Ethiopic wärḫ , Mehri wark̲h̲ , or, with the usual Northwe…


(47,506 words)

Author(s): Peters, R. | Abouseif, Doris Behrens | Powers, D.S. | Carmona, A. | Layish, A. | Et al.
(a.), in Islamic law, the act of founding a charitable trust, and, hence the trust itself. A synonym, used mainly by Mālikī jurists, is ḥabs , ḥubus or ḥubs (in French often rendered as habous ). The essential elements are that a person, with the intention of committing a pious deed, declares part of his or her property to be henceforth unalienable ( ḥabs, taḥbīs ) and designates persons or public utilities as beneficiaries of its yields ( al-taṣadduḳ bi ’l-manfaʿa , tasbīl al-manfaʿa ). The Imāmī S̲h̲īʿa distinguish between waḳf and ḥabs, the latter being a precarious type of waḳf in which th…


(2,812 words)

Author(s): Lambton, Ann K.S.
(t.), trial, interrogation, the Mongolian tribunal or court of justice (Doerfer, iv, 58 ff. n. 1784), hence yarg̲h̲uči , a judge. Čing̲h̲iz K̲h̲ān’s adopted brother (or according to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, adopted son, D̲j̲āmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ , i/1, ed. A. Romaskevič, L. K̲h̲etagurov and A.A. Alizade, Moscow 1965, 178; ibid., ed. B. Karīmī, Tehran 1970, i, 414) S̲h̲igi-Ḳutuku was made yarg̲h̲uči at the ḳuriltay held in 1206 (D.O. Morgan, The Mongols , Oxford 1986, 97). He was to judge certain criminal cases on an ad hoc basis and to supervise the distribution of subject peoples and to…