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Kemalpaşazade

(2,260 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Kemalpaşazade (873–940/1469–1534, Kemālpaşazāde or Kemāl Paşazāde), also known especially in his religious and scholarly writings as İbn or İbn-i Kemal (İbn Kemāl), was the most prominent Ottoman scholar, judge, and historian of the early tenth/sixteenth century, highly regarded by three sultans, Bayezid II (Bāyezīd II, r. 886–918/1481–1512), Selim I (Selīm I, r. 918–26/1512–20), and Süleyman I (Süleymān I, r. 926–74/1520–66). As Şemseddin Ahmed b. Süleyman b. Kemal Paşa (Şems ud-dīn Aḥmed b. Sü…
Date: 2021-02-14

Gazavat-name

(1,316 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Gazavat-name (ghazavāt-nāme, sing., gaza-name/ghazā-nāme) is a generic term (cf. Ar. maghāzī) used in Ottoman Turkish for accounts of military activity at varying levels, on land and at sea. Although gazavat-name can be translated as “book of holy wars/raids,” this is a narrow definition applicable in its literal sense primarily to early warfare against Christian opponents in the Balkans. More broadly, texts in this genre comprise works under various headings, including feth or fetih-name ( fetḥ, fetḥ-nāme, lit., conquest, book of conquest), zafer-name ( ẓafer-nāme, book of vi…
Date: 2021-02-14

Nişancı Abdurrahman Abdi Paşa

(823 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Nişancı Abdurrahman Abdi Paşa (Nişāncı ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbdī, d. 1103/1692) was an Ottoman administrator and historian, and the author of Vekayiname ( Veqāʾiʿ-nāme, sometimes Vaqʿa-nāme, “History of events”), a narrative centred around palace events from the beginning of the reign of Mehmed IV (Meḥmed, r. 1058–99/1648–87) until 1093/1682. He served as private secretary to Mehmed IV, then as nişancı (affixer of the sultan’s tuğra, ṭūghrā, monographic signature), and subsequently in various high-level administrative posts in Istanbul and, from 1093/1682, in the provinces. As nişa…
Date: 2021-02-14

Müneccimbaşı Ahmed Dede

(812 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Müneccimbaşı Ahmed Dede (Aḥmed, 1041–1113/1631–1702) was an Ottoman historian, scholar, and Ṣūfī. He was the author of a universal history from the Creation to his own time, concluding in 1083/1673. Educated chiefly by Mevlevi şeyhs ( sheykhs), his principal career, from 1078/1668, was as chief court astrologer to Mehmed IV (Meḥmed, 1058–99/1648–87). The later part of his career, from 1102/1691, was spent in Mecca and Medina, as a Mevlevi şeyh and teacher. Ahmed was born in Selanik (Thessaloniki), the son of Lutfullah (Lutf Allah) Efendi, a weaver from Ereğli near K…
Date: 2021-02-14

Hasan Beyzade

(650 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Hasan Beyzade Ahmed (Ḥasan Beyzāde Aḥmed) Paşa (d. 1046/1636–7) was an Ottoman finance official and historian. He was probably born in Istanbul. His father, Küçük Hasan (Ḥasan) Bey (d. 995/1586), was an Ottoman katib ( kātib, secretary/clerk) in the imperial chancery who in 993–4/1585–6 served briefly as reisülküttab ( reʾīs al-kuttāb, chief secretary). Around 999/1590–1, after an initial medrese ( madrasa, theological college) education, Hasan Beyzade also entered the Ottoman central chancery as a katib. During the Ottoman-Habsburg war of 1593–1606, he served as tezkireci ( tedh…
Date: 2021-02-14

Historiography, Ottoman

(7,401 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Historiography was the most popular genre of Ottoman prose. Three main developmental phases can be identified, corresponding roughly to Ottomanist historians’ modern periodisation of Ottoman history. In the first phase, from about the beginning of the ninth/fifteenth century until the late tenth/sixteenth century, Ottoman historical writing developed from virtually nothing to become a major, court-centred, literary genre, benefitting from extensive sultanic patronage in a dynamic age when there was muc…
Date: 2021-02-14

Çelebizade İsmail Asım

(742 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Çelebizade İsmail Asım Efendi (Çelebizāde İsmāʿīl ʿĀṣım, also known as Küçükçelebizade/Küçükçelebizāde, 1096–1173/1685–1760) was an Ottoman şeyhülislam ( shaykh al-Islām, head of the judicial hierarchy), historian, and poet. Born in Istanbul, son of the reisülküttab ( raʾīs al-kuttāb, chief secretary in the imperial chancery) Küçük Çelebi Mehmed (Meḥmed) Efendi (d. after 1108–9/1699), he received a scholarly education and taught in several Istanbul medreses ( madrasa, theological college): Kenan Paşa medrese (appointed in 1120/1708), the Dizdariye (Dizdāriyye) (…
Date: 2021-02-14

Celalzade Mustafa Çelebi

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
As nişancı ( nişāncı, head of the Ottoman imperial chancery), major prose stylist and historian Celalzade Mustafa (Celālzāde Muṣṭafā) Çelebi (c. 896–975/1490/1–1567) was one of the most significant and long-serving state servants during the reign of Süleyman (Süleymān) I (r. 926–74/1520–66) and the most influential Ottoman historian of his era. The eldest son of Celaleddin (Celāl al-Dīn, d. 935/1528) from Tosya in the Anatolian Black Sea province of Kastamonu, Mustafa was born c. 896/1490–1, probably in a Balkan town where his father was serving as kadı ( qādī, judge). He spent hi…
Date: 2021-02-14

Cafer Çelebi, Tacizade

(900 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Tacizade Cafer Çelebi (Tācīzāde Caʿfer Çelebi) (856?–921/1452?–1515) was a leading Ottoman poet, prose stylist, and administrator, principally during the reign of Bayezid (Bāyezīd) II (r. 886–918/1481–1512). He was born in Amasya, where his father Taci (Tācī) Beg (d. 890/1485) was a member of Bayezid’s princely household, possibly his personal secretary. Cafer and his brother Sadi (Saʿdī) Çelebi (d. 922/1516) both studied at leading medreses in Bursa and both graduated to teaching careers. Cafer Çelebi’s first teaching post in Simav, western Anatolia, also required him to act as k…
Date: 2021-02-14

Fetihname

(1,760 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
A fetihname ( fetḥnāme/fatḥnāma, lit., victory letter) was an official letter announcing a military victory, originally written immediately after the event, on the order of a sultan, to inform neighbouring rulers, potential allies, important vassals and/or senior officials within the state. The term fetihname (fetḥnāme/fatḥnāma) is also used for longer literary and historical narratives of battles and campaigns composed later, sometimes many years after the event; such accounts appear also under various other titles, including gazaname (ghazānāme) or gazavatname (ghazāvātn…
Date: 2021-02-14

Wed̲j̲īhī

(358 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ottoman historian and poet (1031?-1071/1620?-1661). He was born in Bag̲h̲če Sarāy [ q.v.], capital of the k̲h̲ānate of the Crimea, the son of a certain ʿAbd Allāh ʿĀrif al-Rūmī. According to Ottoman sources, his given name was Ḥasan (though Ḥüseyin sometimes occurs in later European works). His date of birth is calculated as around 1031/1620, based on a statement in his poetic dīwān that he was entering his fortieth year in 1070/1659. In 1624-5 his family moved to Istanbul, where he received a good secretarial and literary education. Taken into the household of the ḳapudan-i deryā [ q.v.] …

Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān

(337 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ṭurk̲h̲ān K̲h̲ādid̲j̲e Sulṭān ( ca. 1626-83), mother of the Ottoman sultan Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān entered the Ottoman imperial harem as a slave of the wālide sulṭān Kösem Sulṭān [ q.v.], mother of Murād IV (1623-40) and Ibrāhīm (1640-8) [ q.vv.]. Nothing is known of her background, except that she had a brother, Yūsuf Ag̲h̲a, who died in Istanbul in 1100/1689. She gave birth to sultan Ibrāhīm’s eldest son Meḥemmed in 1641; there may also have been a daughter, Fāṭima Sulṭān, 1642-57. On Ibrāhīm’s deposition in 1648 and he…

Meḥmed Ṭāhir, Bursali̊

(400 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(1861-1925), Ottoman biographer and bibliographer. Meḥmed Ṭāhir was born in Bursa in northwestern Turkey on 22 November 1861, the son of Rifʿat Bey, clerk to the city council, and grandson of Üsküdarli̊ Seyyid Meḥmed Ṭāhir Pas̲h̲a, formerly a commander in sultan ʿAbd ül-Med̲j̲īd’s imperial guard. He studied at the Bursa military academy from 1875 and at the élite Ḥarbiy̲y̲e̲ (War) academy in Istanbul from 1880. Graduating in 1883 he spent the next twenty years teaching geography…

Seyfī

(539 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(d. probably after 998/1590), Ottoman historian. Practically nothing is known about Seyfī aside from the fact that he compiled a unique historiogeographical work on the rulers of Asia and China contemporary with Murād III, and the possibility that he may have been a defterdār in the Ottoman bureaucracy. Neither he nor his work is mentioned in the standard Ottoman bio-bibliographical sources. Seyfī’s history has been published by J. Matuz, L’ouvrage de Seyfī Čelebī : historien ottoman du XVI e siècle; édition critique, traduction et commentaires, Paris 1966. Its title, added pos…

Selīm II

(1,407 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, the eleventh Ottoman sultan (r. 974-82/1566-74), the third son and the fourth of the six children of Ḳānūnī Süleymān I and K̲h̲ürrem Sulṭān [ q.vv.]. He was born in Istanbul on 26 Rad̲j̲ab 930/30 May 1524, during the festivities accompanying the marriage of Süleymān’s Grand Vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Together with his elder half-brother Muṣṭafa and his elder brother Meḥmed, Selīm was one of the three princes in whose honour was held the sünnet dügünü (circumcision feast) of 1530, one of the major dynastic spectacles of Süleymān’s reign. He r…

Ṭūrsūn Beg

(378 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, 9th/15th-century Ottoman historian. What little is known about Ṭūrsūn Beg derives mainly from incidental references in his History . He was born probably in Bursa in the mid-1420s, to an already prominent ümerāʾ family. His uncle D̲j̲übbe ʿAlī had served as governor in Bursa, and his grandfather Fīrūz Beg in Iznik. Ṭūrsūn Beg was, while relatively young, the holder of a tīmār [ q.v.], probably inherited from his father Ḥamza Beg (cf. Tursun Bey, Târîh-i Ebü’l-feth , ed. M. Tulum, Istanbul 1977, pp. xi-xii; H. İnalcik and R. Murphey, The history of Mehmed the Conqueror by Tursun Beg

Pečewī

(665 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm (982- ca. 1060/1574-ca. 1649-50), Ottoman historian. Pečewī was born in 982/1574 in Pécs in southwestern Hungary, whence his epithet Pečewī (or, alternatively, Pečuylu, from the Croatian ). His family had a long tradition of Ottoman military service. Both his great-grandfather Ḳara Dāwūd and his grandfather D̲j̲aʿfer Beg served as alay begi in Bosnia; his father (name unknown) took part in campaigns in Bosnia, and in ʿlrāḳ during the 1530s (Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , i, 87, 102-6, 436-7, ii, 433). Pečewī’s mother was a member of the Ṣoḳollu [ q.v.] family. At the age of 14, after…

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲ādi̊m

(289 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(? - 922/1517), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Selīm I. Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was of Christian, probably Bosnian, origin, recruited into Ottoman service through the dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] system. Promoted from amongst the white eunuchs of the Palace to the rank of vizier, he served as beg of Bosnia, and then in 920/1514, at the beginning of the eastern campaign against S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl, was appointed beglerbegi [ q.v.] of Anatolia. Commanding the right wing of Selīm I’s army at the battle of Čaldiran [ q.v.] (August 1514), he played a decisive role in the Ottoman victory and was im…

Nes̲h̲rī

(670 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(d. before 926/1520), Ottoman historian. Nes̲h̲rī’s one, partially-surviving, historical work, the D̲j̲ihān-nümā , marks a pivotal point in both the development and the study of Ottoman historiography. However, very little is known with certainty about its author, aside from his mak̲h̲laṣ Nes̲h̲rī, which occurs at the end of the history in a ḳaṣīda addressed to the reigning sultan Bāyezīd II [ q.v.]. From scanty and largely unreliable references by later Ottoman writers such as Laṭīfī, ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ Čelebi, ʿĀlī and Kātib Čelebi [ q.vv.], it was long thought that his given name w…

Naʿīmā

(996 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(1065-1128/1655-1716) Ottoman historian. Muṣṭafā Naʿīm, known by the mak̲h̲laṣ Naʿīmā, was born in Aleppo, probably in 1065/1655, the son of a Janissary commander. As a young man he entered, ca. 1100/1688-9, the palace corps of balṭad̲j̲i̊lar [ q.v.] in Istanbul and received a thorough scribal education, developing particular interests in literature, history and astrology. He may also have attended classes at the Beyazīd mosque. Graduating from the balṭad̲j̲i̊ ¶ corps, he was apprenticed to the kātib s of the dīwān-i hümāyūn , and appointed secretary to…

Waḳʿa-Nüwīs

(628 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, the title of the late Ottoman official historian. The post of official historian, weḳāyi’-nüwīs , later waḳʿa-nüwīs (“events/event-writer”), in the Ottoman empire dates from the early 18th century. It was a position attached to the Ottoman central administration, which provided for a series of officially-appointed writers to compile a continuous, approved narrative of recent Ottoman history as a formal historical record, to be routinely printed and made available. The post continued in existence for two hundred years, until 1922, virtually the end of the Ottoman empire. The term w…

Rūḥī

(336 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
(d. after 917/1511), Ottoman historian. There is little definite information about this historian apart from his mak̲h̲laṣ Rūḥī. From ʿĀlī’s [ q.v.] reference to him in the Künhü ’l-ak̲h̲bār as Edrenewī Mewlānā Rūḥī, it is probable that he was a member of the ʿulamāʾ and had a family or professional association with Edirne (J. Schmidt, Muṣṭafā ʿĀlī’s Künhü ’l-aḫbār and its preface according to the Leiden manuscript, Istanbul 1987, 58). Any identification with Rūḥī Fāḍi̊l Efendi (d. 927/1528), son of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Zenbilli ʿAlī Efendi, remains hypothetical (Babinger, GOW, 4…

Rās̲h̲id

(388 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed (?-1148/1735), Ottoman historian and poet. He was born in Istanbul, the son of ḳāḍī Muṣṭafā Efendi from Malaṭya. From 1116/1704 he held a regular series of posts as a müderris culminating in appointment to the Süleymāniyye in 1130/1718, the latter held concurrently with the post of Ḥaremeyn müfettis̲h̲i , inspector of the awḳāf of Mecca and Medina. He then served as ḳāḍī of Aleppo 1135-7/1723-4. His career thereafter was irregular by comparison, and much influenced by political considerations, in particular by his closeness to the Grand Vizier News̲h̲ehirli Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.…

S̲h̲āriḥ ül-Menār-Zāde

(357 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Aḥmed (P-1067/?1657), Ottoman historian. The son of the Ottoman ʿālim ʿAbd ül-Ḥalīm (d. 1051/1641-2), he was born probably in Amasya and himself followed an ʿulemā career, rising to be a middle-ranking müderris in Istanbul. His father being the author of an Ottoman commentary on an Arabic work on jurisprudence, Manār al-anwār , the son became generally known by the laḳab S̲h̲āriḥ ül-Menārzāde. He died in Istanbul in S̲h̲aʿbān 1067/May-June 1657 (HJ. Kissling (éd.), ʿUšâqě-zâde’s Lebensbeschreibungen berühmter Gelehrter und Gottesmänner des Osmanischen Reiches im 17. Jahrhunder…

Ṭas̲h̲köprüzāde

(1,113 words)

Author(s): Fleming, Barbara | Babinger, F. | Woodhead, Christine
, the name of a family of Ottoman Turkish scholars who stemmed from the village of Ṭas̲h̲ Köprü (“stone bridge”) near Ḳasṭamūnī [ q.v.] in northern Anatolia. Famous members of the family include: 1. Muṣliḥ al-Dīn Muṣṭafā , preceptor of Sultan Selīm I [ q.v.]. ¶ He was born at Ṭas̲h̲ Köprü in 857/1453, and died on 12 S̲h̲awwāl 935/19 July 1529 in Istanbul. He studied in Bursa and Istanbul under celebrated scholars, and then progressed through a series of medrese s at Bursa, Ankara, Skopje, and Edirne. Bāyezīd II [ q.v.] appointed him preceptor ( k̲h̲od̲j̲a ) of his son …

Urud̲j̲

(331 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
b. ʿĀdil ( fl. late 15th-early 16th century), Ottoman historian and author of one of the ¶ earliest histories in Turkish of the Ottoman dynasty. Urud̲j̲ b. ʿĀdil el-Ḳazzāz was the son of a silk merchant, lived in Edirne and was a kātib [ q.v.] by profession. His only known work, the Tewārīk̲h̲-i āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān , was composed most probably during the reign of Bāyezīd II [ q.v.]. No other biographical details about him are known. For early Ottoman history, Urud̲j̲’s history was based largely on royal calendars, taḳwīm s, and on various menāḳi̊b-nāme s, including that by Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī Faḳīh [ q.v.],…

T̲h̲üreyyā

(335 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed , Ottoman biographer (1261-1326/1845-1909). Meḥmed T̲h̲üreyyā was born in Istanbul, the son of Meḥmed Ḥüsnü Bey, an Ottoman civil servant. In 1863 he joined the translation office of the Bāb-i̊ ʿĀlī, and for some time was also on the staff of the newspaper Ḏj̲erīde-yi Ḥawādīt̲h̲ . He was appointed in 1886 to the Council of Education, where he served until his death in 1909. He was buried in the Ḳarad̲j̲a Aḥmed cemetery at Üsküdar (Ö.F. Akün, art. Süreyya , in İA , ix, 247). He wrote or compiled more than forty volumes, said to include a multi-part Arabic-Persian-Ottoman-…

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲od̲j̲a

(1,834 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine | Babinger, Fr. | Dávid, G.
, the name of two Ottoman dignitaries. 1. The vizier, scholar and prose writer (845-91/1440-86). Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was born probably in 845/1440, in Bursa, the son of K̲h̲i̊ḍr Beg b. Ḳāḍī D̲j̲elāl al-Dīn (d. 863/1459 [ q.v.]), the first Ottoman ḳāḍī of Istanbul. Through his mother, a daughter of Mollā Yegān (d. 878/1473), he was also descended from a second ʿulemāʾ family prominent in the early Ottoman period. After initial appointments as müderris in Edirne, he was promoted by Meḥemmed II to a teaching post at the Istanbul ṣaḥn-i themāniye [ q.v.], to be held jointly with that of k̲h̲…

Nergisī

(797 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Nergisī-zāde Meḥmed Efendi (d. 1044/1635), pre-eminent Ottoman prose stylist. He was born in Sarajevo, probably around 994/1586, son of the ḳāḍī Nergis Aḥmed Efendi, and completed his education in Istanbul, becoming a protégé of Ḳāf-zāde Fayḍ Allāh Efendi (d. 1020/1611), from whom (and not, as in some accounts, from his son Kāf-zāde ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Fāʾiḍī Efendi) he received his mülāzemet [ q.v.]. He may have served briefly as a müderris , but his principal employment was as ḳāḍī in various posts in Rūmeli, mainly in Bosnia. Following early appointments (during the period ca, 1022-27 /ca. …

S̲h̲ehzāde

(262 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(p., T.), a title of Ottoman princes. The term s̲h̲ehzāde (or s̲h̲āhzāde , from Pers. s̲h̲āh “king” + zāda “born of”), “prince”, was one of the titles used for the male children born to a reigning Ottoman sultan. It is said to have been introduced by Meḥemmed I (816-24/1413-21) for his own sons, and over subsequent decades gradually superseded the earlier term čelebi . S̲h̲ehzāde came into use around the same time as the tide pādis̲h̲āh [ q.v.], as part of the general elevation of Ottoman political and cultural pretensions following Meḥemmed I’s reunification of the stat…

Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh

(237 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ottoman historian, d. after 816/1413. Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh is the earliest known compiler of menāḳib [see manāḳib ] or exemplary tales of the Ottoman ¶ dynasty in Ottoman Turkish. However, his compilation has not survived as an independent work, and the only reference to it is that made by ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde [ q.v.]. The latter records that in 816/1413, while accompanying Meḥemmed I’s army on campaign, he fell ill and “remained behind at Geyve, in the house of Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faqīh, the son of Ork̲h̲ān Beg’s imām ... it is on the authority of the son of the imām that I relate the menāqib

ʿUs̲h̲s̲h̲āḳī-Zāde

(319 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm b. al-Seyyid ʿAbd ül-Bāḳī (1075-1136/1664-1724), Ottoman scholar and biographer. He stemmed from a prominent family of ʿulemāʾ : his father was ḳāḍī of Mecca, his maternal grandfather was naḳīb ül-es̲h̲rāf and his younger brother ʿAbdullāh (d. 1139/1726-7 became ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Rūmeli. Ibrāhīm followed a middle-ranking career as a müderris , later rising to the posts of ḳāḍī of Medina (1119/1707) and of Izmir (1125-6/1713-14). He died in Istanbul and was buried at the Keskin Dede cemetery near the Mosque of Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ Pas̲h̲a (Sālim, Ted̲h̲kere

Ṣolaḳ-Zāde

(363 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed Hemdemī (?-1068/1658), Ottoman historian and musical composer. Very little is known about the life and career of Ṣolaḳ-zāde. Described as “old” at the time of his death, he was perhaps born sometime around the year 1000/1592. He died in Istanbul in 1068/1658. His father may have been a retired ṣolaḳ-bas̲h̲i̊ , whose connections gave his son an early entrée into the Ottoman imperial household, with which he remained closely associated. The mak̲h̲las Hemdemī reflected his status as “constant companion” to Murād IV (1…

Silāḥdār, Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊li̊ Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a

(417 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, (1068-1139/1658-1726-7), Ottoman historian. The palace official Silāḥdār Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a was born on 12 Rabīʿ I 1068/8 December 1658 in the Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊ district of Istanbul. A protégé of the bas̲h̲ muṣāḥib S̲h̲āhīn Ag̲h̲a, he was educated in the sarāy and entered the palace bostānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] corps in 1084/1674. In 1089/1678 he became a zülflü baltad̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] and in 1090/1679, was promoted to the seferli odasi̊ . In this capacity he took part in the 1683 Vienna campaign led by Ḳara Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. In 1099/1688 he entered the k̲h̲āṣṣ oda [ q.v.] and was promoted successively to d…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(48,480 words)

Author(s): De Blois, F.C. | Van Dalen, B. | Humphreys, R.S. | Marin, Manuela | Lambton, Ann K.S | Et al.
(a.) “date, dating, chronology, era”, then also “annals, history”. ¶ I. Dates and Eras in the Islamic World 1. In the sense of “date, dating”, etc. i. Etymology . The non-Arabic origin of this word was recognised by the mediaeval philologists, but the often-cited derivation of the participle muʾarrak̲h̲ “dated”, from a supposed Persian compound māh-rōz “month-day”, is naturally fanciful. In fact, it clearly belongs to the common Semitic root for “moon” and “month”; cf. Akkadian ( w) arḫu , Sabaic wrḫ , Ethiopic wärḫ , Mehri wark̲h̲ , or, with the usual Northwe…

Rūznāmed̲j̲i

(301 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(p.-Tkish.), the Ottoman term for the keeper of a daybook ( rūznāme or rūznāmče ), referring principally to the official in charge of the register of daily income and expenditure of the central treasury, k̲h̲azīne . From the diminutive form rūznāmče, this official was known alternatively as rūznāmčed̲j̲i , a title often contracted to rūznāmče and identical with the name of the daybook itself. The rūznāmed̲j̲i and his scribal staff formed part of the financial bureaucracy headed by the bas̲h̲ defterdār [ q.v.]. The late-15th century ḳānūnnāme of Mehmed II ass…

Oḳču-Zāde

(341 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, meḥmed s̲h̲āh beg (970-1039/1562-1630), Ottoman nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ and prose stylist. Oḳču-zāde Meḥmed S̲h̲āh (or S̲h̲āhī) Beg was born in 970/1562, the son of a long-serving Ottoman chancery official, later beglerbegi [ q.v.] Oḳču-zāde Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a (d. ca. 995/1587). His own chancery career spanned 44 years. Appointed kātib of the dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.] (988/1580), he held office as reʾīs ül-küttāb (1005/1596), defter emīni (1006/1597), and nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.vv.] (1007-10/1599-1601). He then served as defterdār [ q.v.] of Egypt with the rank of sālyāne begi

Rüstem Pas̲h̲a

(945 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(906?-968/1500?-1561) Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born ca. 1500 in a village near Sarajevo, Rüstem Pas̲h̲a came of a family most probably of Bosnian origin (though some sources mention Croatian or possibly Albanian ancestry), whose pre-Muslim surname had been either Opukovič or Čigalič (cf. Albèri, Relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al senato , ser. iii, vol. iii, 89; C. Truhelka, Bosnische Post , Sarajevo 1912, no. 80). A register from the ḳāḍī ’s [ q.v.] court at Sarajevo, dated 974/1557, records the sale of a house by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Beg b. K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn, mütewellī of Rüstem Pas̲h̲a’s be…

S̲h̲āhnāmed̲j̲i

(497 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(or S̲h̲ehnāmed̲j̲i ) (t.), the term for an Ottoman writer of literary-historical works in a style inspired by the S̲h̲āh-nāma of the Persian poet Firdawsī [ q.v.], i.e. works composed in Persian, in the mat̲h̲nawī form of rhymed couplets in the mutaḳārib metre, describing in fulsome terms the military exploits of the reigning sultan. The first Ottoman compositions in the s̲h̲ehnāme genre date from the mid-9th/15th century, as occasional works written for presentation to Meḥemmed II (1451-81). An official, salaried post of s̲h̲ehnāmed̲j̲i “writer of s̲h̲ehnāmes

T̲h̲üreyyā

(344 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed, biographe ottoman, (1261-1326/1845-1909). Meḥmed T̲h̲üreyyā, né à Istanbul, fils de Meḥmed Ḥüsnü Bey, était fonctionnaire de l’administration ottomane. En 1863, il entra dans le bureau de traduction de Bāb-i ʿAlī, et pendant quelques temps collabora aussi au journal Ḏj̲erīde-i Ḥawādīt̲h̲. Il fut nommé, en 1886, au Conseil de l’Éducation, où il exerça jusqu’à sa mort en 1909. Il fut inhumé dans le cimetière Ḳarad̲j̲a Aḥmed d’Üsküdar (Ö. F. Akün, art. Süreyya, dans IA, IX, 247). Il écrivit ou compila plus de quarante volumes, dont on dit qu’ils comportaient un di…

Meḥmed Ṭāhir, Bursali̊

(434 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(1861-1925?), auteur ottoman de biographies et bibliographies. Meḥmed Ṭāhir naquit à Bursa au Nord-ouest de la Turquie, le 22 novembre 1861, d’un père, Rifʿat Bey, fonctionnaire au conseil urbain; son grand père, Üskürdarli̊ Seyyid Meḥmed Ṭāhir Pas̲h̲a, avait été commandant à la garde impériale de ʿAbd ül-Med̲j̲id. À partir de 1875, Meḥmed fut élève à l’académie militaire de Bursa, puis à compter de 1880, il poursuivit sa formation à l’académie d’élite Ḥarbiyye (Guerre) d’Istanbul. Une fois diplômé en 1883, il enseigna, vingt ans durant, la …

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲od̲j̲a

(1,885 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine | Babinger, Fr. | Dávid, G.
, nom de deux dignitaires ottomans. 1. Le vizir, savant et prosateur, (845-91/ 1440-86). Sinān al-dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a naquit probablement en 845/1440 à Bursa de Ḵh̲iḍr Beg b. Ḳāḍī Ḏj̲elāl al-dīn (m. 863/1459 [ q.v.]), premier ḳāḍī ottoman d’Istanbul. Par sa mère, fille de Mollā Yegān (m. 878/1473), il descendait aussi d’une autre famille de ʿulemāʾ qui se distingua au cours de la période ottomane des débuts. Après avoir servi comme müderris à Edirne, il fut désigné par Meḥemmed II à un poste d’enseignement dans le ṣaḥn-i t̲h̲emāniye [ q.v.] d’Istanbul, fonction jumelée avec celle de k̲h̲od̲j…

Wed̲j̲īhī

(372 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, historien et poète ottoman (1031?-1071/1620P-1661). Il naquit à Bag̲h̲če Sarāy [ q.v.], capitale du k̲h̲ānat de Crimée, fils d’un certain ʿAbd Allāh ʿĀrif al-Rūmī. D’après les sources ottomanes, son prénom était Ḥasan (pourtant dans certains travaux européens, il est désigné comme Ḥüseyin). On situe sa date de naissance autour de 1031/1620 en se fondant sur un passage de son dīwān de poèmes où il mentionne qu’en 1070/1659, il entrait dans sa quarantième année. En 1624-5, sa famille partit s’installer à Istanbul où il reçut une bonne formation de secrét…

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲ādi̇m

(297 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(?-922/1517), Grand Vizir ottoman sous Selīm I. Sinān al-dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a était d’origine chrétienne, probablement bosniaque, et fut recruté au service des Ottomans par le système du devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.]. Promu au rang de vizir à partir de la classe des eunuques blancs du Palais, il servit comme beg de Bosnie, puis en 920/1514, au début de la campagne d’Orient contre S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl, comme beglerbegi [ q.v.] d’Anatolie. Commandant l’aile droite de l’armée de Selīm I à la bataille de Čaldiran [ q.v.] (aoūt 1514), il joua un rôle décisif dans la victoire ottomane et fut immédiat…

Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān

(373 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ṭurk̲h̲ān Ḵh̲ādid̲j̲e Sulṭān (vers 1626-83), mère du Sulṭān ottoman Meḥemmed IV [ q.v.]. Ṭurk̲h̲ān Sulṭān entra dans le harem impérial ottoman comme esclave de la wālide sulṭān Kösem ¶ Sulṭān [ q.v.], mère de Murād IV (1623-40) et d’Ibrāhīm (1640-8) [ q.vv.]. On ne sait rien de ses origines, si ce n’est qu’elle avait un frère, Yūsuf Ag̲h̲a, qui mourut à Istanbul en 1100/1689. Elle donna naissance au fils aîné d’Ibrāhīm, Meḥemmed, en 1641; il y eut peutêtre aussi une fille, Fāṭima Sulṭān, 1642-57. Quand Ibrāhīm fut déposé en 1648, et q…

Rüstem Pas̲h̲a

(978 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(906?-968/1500?-1561), Grand Vizir ottoman. Né vers 1500 dans un village proche de Sarajevo, Rüstem Pas̲h̲a était d’une famille d’origine très probablement bosniaque (bien que certaines sources parlent d’ascendances croates, ou peut-être albanaises) dont le nom pré-musulman avait été Opukovič, ou Čigalič (cf. Albèri, Relazioni degli ambasciaiori veneti al senato, sér. III, vol. III, 89; C. Truhelka, Bosnische Post, Sarajevo 1912, n° 80). Un registre du tribunal du ḳāḍī à Sarajevo, daté de 974/1557, relate la vente d’une maison par Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Beg b. Ḵh̲ayr al-dīn, mütewellī…

Seyfī

(562 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(m. probablement après 998/1590), historien ottoman. On ne sait pratiquement rien de Seyfī, sinon qu’il composa un unique ouvrage historico-géographique sur les souverains de l’Asie et de la Chine contemporains de Murād III, et la possibilité qu’il ait été defterdār dans la bureaucratie ottomane. Ni lui, ni son ouvrage ne sont mentionnés dans les sources bio-bibliographiques ottomanes habituelles, L’histoire de Seyfī a été publiée par J. Matuz, L’ouvrage de Seyfī Čelebī, historien ottoman du XVI e siècle; édition critique, traduction et commentaires, Paris 1966. Son titre, a…

Ṣolaḳ-zāde

(360 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed Hemdemī (? - 1068/1658), historien et compositeur de musique ottoman. On sait peu de chose sur sa vie et sa carrière. Qualifié de «vieux» au moment de sa mort, il était peut-être né aux alentours de l’an 1000/1592. Il mourut à Istanbul en (1068/1658). Son père devait être un ṣolaḳ-bas̲h̲i̊ retraité, dont les relations ouvrirent à son fils les portes de la maison impériale ottomane, à laquelle il resta étroitement associé. Le mak̲h̲laṣ de Hemdemī reflète son statut de «compagnon constant» de Murād IV (1623-40), au moins pendant la dernière partie du règne de ce sultan (Ewliyā Čelebi, S…

Silāḥdār Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊li̊

(412 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a (1068-1139/1658-1726-7), historien ottoman. Le fonctionnaire du palais Silāḥdār Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a naquit le 12 rabīʿ II 1068/8 décembre 1658 dans le quartier Fi̊ndi̊ḳli̊ d’Istanbul. Protégé du bas̲h̲ muṣāḥib S̲h̲āhīn Ag̲h̲a, il fut élevé au sarāy et entra au corps des bostānd̲j̲i̊s [ q.v.] du palais en 1084/1674. En 1089/1678, il devint zülflü baltad̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] et en 1090/ 1679 fut promu au seferli odasi̊. En cette qualité, il prit part à la campagne de Vienne de 1683 conduite par Ḳara Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. En 1099/1688, il entra au k̲h̲āṣṣ oda [ q.v.] et fut successiveme…

Ṭas̲h̲köprüzāde

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Flemming, Barbara | Babinger, F. | Woodhead, Christine
, nom d’une famille d’érudits turcs ottomans, originaires du village de Ṭas̲h̲ Köprü («pont de pierre»), près de Ḳasṭamanī [ q.v.] dans le Nord de l’Anatolie: on trouve parmi les membres célèbres de la famille: 1. Muṣliḥ al-dīn Muṣṭafā, précepteur du Sultan Selīm Ier [ q.v.]. Il naquit à Ṭas̲h̲ Köprü en 857/1453, et mourut le 12 s̲h̲awwāl 935/19 juillet 1529 à Istanbul. Il étudia à Bursa (Brousse) et à Istanbul auprès d’érudits célèbres et puis passa par un certain nombre de medreses, de Bursa à Ankara, puis Skopje et Edirne. Bāyezīd II [ q.v.] le nomma précepteur ( k̲h̲od̲j̲a) de son fils Se…

Waḳʿa-nüwīs

(685 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, titre de l’historien officiel de la fin de l’empire ottoman. Le poste d’historien officiel, weḳāyiʿ-nüwīs, plus tard waḳʿa-nüwīs (“événements/écrivain d’événement”), dans l’empire Ottoman, date du début du XVIIIe siècle. C’était une fonction attachée à l’administration centrale ottomane qui prévoyait qu’un certain nombre d’écrivains désignés en haut lieu devaient rédiger en permanence un récit accepté par le pouvoir de l’histoire ottomane récente qui formerait un document historique officiel qui serait régulièrement impr…

Rūḥī

(335 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, historien ottoman, m. après 917/1511. On a peu d’informations précises sur cet historien, à part son mak̲h̲laṣ de Rūḥī. A en juger parle nom d’Edrenewī Mewlānā Rūḥī que lui attribue ʿAlī [ q.v.] dans le Künhü l-ak̲h̲bār, il est probable qu’il faisait partie des ʿulamāʾ et avait un lien familial ou professionnel avec Edirne (J. Schmidt, Muṣṭafā ʿĀlī’s Künhü l-aḫbār and ils préface according to the Leiden manuscript, Istanbul 1987, 58). Une quelconque identification avec Rūḥī Fāḍi̊l Efendi (m. 927/1528), fils du s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Zenbilli ʿAlī Efendi, demeure hypothétique (Ba…

S̲h̲āhnāmed̲j̲i

(501 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(ou S̲h̲ehnāmed̲j̲i) (t.), désigne un auteur ottoman d’ouvrages historico-littéraires dans un style inspiré du S̲h̲āh-nāma du poète persan Firdawsī [ q.v.]. Il s’agit d’ouvrages en persan, dans ¶ la forme du mat̲h̲nawi, distiques rimes dans le mètre mutaḳārib décrivant en termes excessifs les exploits militaires du sultan régnant. Les premières compositions ottomanes dans le genre s̲h̲ehnāme datent du milieu du IXe/XVe siècle; ce sont des œuvres de circonstance dédiées à Meḥemmed II (1451-81). Un poste officiel et rétribué de s̲h̲ehnāmed̲j̲i «auteur de s̲h̲ehnāmes» fut instau…

Nes̲h̲rī

(649 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, historien ottoman (m. avant 926/1520). L’unique ouvrage historique de Nes̲h̲rī, conservé en partie, le Ḏj̲ihān-nümā, est un pivot autour duquel tournent l’évolution et l’étude de l’historiographie ottomane. Toutefois, on ne sait pas grand-chose de son auteur, sinon son mak̲h̲laṣ de Nes̲h̲rī, qui figure à la fin de l’histoire, dans une ḳaṣīda adressée au sultan régnant, Bāyezīd II [ q.v.]. D’après de rares références, d’ailleurs peu crédibles, que fournissent des auteurs ottomans postérieurs tels que Laṭīfī, ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ Čelebi, ʿĀlī et Kātib Čelebi [ q.vv.], on a longtemps pens…

Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī Faḳīh

(230 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, historien ottoman, m. après 816/1413. Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh est le plus ancien compilateur de menāḳib [voir Manāḳib], récits légendaires concernant la dynastie ottomane. Cependant, cette compilation n’a pas été conservée comme un ouvrage indépendant; la seule référence en est donnée par ʿAs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde [ q.v.]. Celui-ci rapporte qu’en 616/1413, alors qu’il accompagnait en campagne l’armée de Meḥemmed Ier, il tomba malade et demeura à l’arrière, à Geyve, dans la demeure de Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Fāḳih, le fils de l’ imām Orkān Beg, «. . . c’est sous l’autorité du fils de l’ imām que je racon…

Ṭūrsūn Beg

(423 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, historien ottoman du IXe/XVe siècle. Le peu que l’on sache à propos de Ṭūrsūn Beg découle principalement d’allusions fortuites tirées de son Histoire. Il naquit probablement à Brousse au milieu des années 1420, dans une famille déjà célèbre d’ ümerāʾ. Son oncle Ḏj̲übbe ʿAlī fut gouverneur de Brousse, et son grand-père Fīrūz Beg gouverneur d’Iznik. Ṭūrsūn Beg fut détenteur, alors qu’il était encore relativement jeune, d’un tīmār [ q.v.], hérité probablement de son père Ḥamza Beg (cf. Tursun Bey, Târîh-i Ebü l-feth, éd. M. Tulum, Istanbul 1977, pp. XI-XII; H. Inalcik et R. Murphey, The hi…

ʿUs̲h̲s̲h̲āḳī-zāde

(336 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm b. al-Seyyid ʿAbd ül-Bāḳī (1075-1136/1664-1724), savant et biographe ottoman. Issu d’une éminente famille de ʿulemāʾ: son père fut ḳāḍī de La Mecque, son grand père maternel était naḳīb al-as̲h̲rāf et son jeune frère ʿAbdullāh (m. 1139-1726-7) fut ḳāḍī-ʿasker de Rūmelī. Ibrāhīm suivit une carrière moyenne de müaerris, atteignant plus tard le poste de ḳāḍī de Médine (1119/1707), puis d’Izmir 1125-6/1713-4). Il mourut à Istanbul et fut enterré au cimetière de Keskin Dede près de la Mosquée de Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī Pas̲h̲a (Sālim, Ted̲h̲kere, Istanbul, 1315/1897, 218-20; voir …

Selīm II

(1,471 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, onzième Sultan ottoman (r. 974-82/1566-74), troisième fils et quatrième des six enfants de Ḳānūnī Süleymān I et Ḵh̲urrem Sulṭān [ q.v.]. Il naquit à Istanbul le 26 rad̲j̲ab 930/30 mai 1524, au cours des festivités qui accompagnaient le mariage du Grand Vizir de Süleymān Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Conjointement avec son demi-frère aîné Musṭafā et son frère aîné Meḥmed, Selīm fut l’un des trois princes en l’honneur desquels s’était tenu le sünnet dügünü (fête de la circoncision) de 1530, l’une des cérémonies dynastiques principales du règne de Süleymān. Il resta à Ista…

S̲h̲ehzāde

(258 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(p., t.), titre de princes ottomans. Le terme s̲h̲ehzāde, ou s̲h̲āhzāde, du persan s̲h̲āh «roi» et zāda «fils», «prince», est un des titres ayant désigné es enfants mâles nés d’un sultan ottoman ¶ régnant. Il aurait été inauguré par Meḥemmed I (816-24/1413-21) pour ses propres fils, et au cours des décennies qui suivirent supplanta progressivement le terme ancien čelebi. S̲h̲ehzāde entra dans l’usage vers le même temps que le titre de pādis̲h̲āh [ q.v.], dans la ligne de l’accroissement des prétentions politiques et culturelles des Ottomans après la réunification de …

Oḳču-zade

(361 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed S̲h̲āh Beg (970-1039/1562-1630), nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ ottoman et styliste en prose. Oḳču-zāde Meḥmed S̲h̲ah (ou S̲h̲āhī) Beg naquit en 970/1562 d’un fonctionnaire de longue date de la chancellerie ottomane, puis beglerbegi [ q.v], Oḳčuzāde Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a (m. vers 995/1587). Sa propre carrière à la chancellerie dura 44 ans. Nommé kātib du dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.] (988/1580), il remplit les fonctions de reʾīs ül-küttāb (1005/1596), defter emīni (1006/1597) et nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.vv.] (1007-10/1599-1601). Il servit ensuite comme defterdār [ q.v.] d’Égypte avec le rang de sālyāne …

Nergisī

(811 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Nergisī-zāde Meḥmed Efendi (m. 1044/1635), éminent prosateur ottoman. Né à Sarajevo, probablement vers 994/1586, il était le fils du ḳāḍī Nergis Aḥmed Efendi. Il termina ses études à Istanbul et devint un protégé de ḳāf-zāde Fayḍ Allāh Efendi (m. 1020/1611) de qui (et non, comme on le dit parfois, de son fils ḳāf-zāde ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Fāʾiḍī Ef.) il reçut sa mülāzemet [ q.v.]. Il peut avoir exercé quelque temps la fonction de müderris, mais c’est en qualité de ḳāḍī qu’il fut surtout employé dans divers postes de Roumélie, principalement en Bosnie. Après ses premières nominat…

Rās̲h̲id

(411 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed (? -1148/1735), historien et poète ottoman. Né à Istanbul, il était le fils du ḳāḍī Muṣṭafā Efendi de Malaṭya. A partir de 1116/1704, il occupa successivement plusieurs postes de müderris, culminant dans sa nomination à la Süleymāniyye en 1130/1718; il jumela cette fonction avec celle de ḥaremeynmüfettis̲h̲i, inspecteur des awḳāf de la Mekke et de Médine. Il fut ensuite, ḳāḍī d’Alep pendant la période 1135-7/1723-4. Par la suite, sa carrière fut relativement irrégulière, et très influencée par des considérations politiques, notamment sa familiar…

Rūznāmed̲j̲i

(311 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(p. - t.), terme ottoman pour désigner le teneur de livre journalier ( rūznāme ou rūznāmče), c’est à dire avant tout le fonctionnaire chargé du registre des rentrées et des sorties quotidiennes au Trésor central, k̲h̲azīne. A partir du diminutif rūznāmče, ce fonctionnaire fut appelé soit rūznāmčed̲j̲i, titre souvent contracté en rūznāmče et se confondant avec le nom du journal lui-même. Le rūznāmed̲j̲i et son équipe faisaient partie de la bureaucratie financière dirigée par le bas̲h̲ defterdār [ q.v.]. Le ḳānūnnāme de Meḥemmed II, à la fin du XVe siècle, assigne un statut officiel …

Pečewi

(702 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr. | Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm (982-vers 1060/15 74-vers 1649-50), historien ottoman né à Pécs [ q.v.] en Hongrie du Sud-ouest, d’où son nom de Pečewī (ou alternativement de Pečuylu), du croate Sa famille avait une longue tradition de service militaire chez les Ottomans. Son arrière-grand-père Ḳara Dāwūd ainsi que son grand-père Ḏj̲aʿfar Beg servaient comme alay begi en Bosnie; son père (dont le nom est inconnu) prit part à des campagnes en Bosnie et en ʿIrāḳ dans les années 1530 (Pečewī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, I, 87, 102-6, 436-7; II, 433). La mère de Pečewī faisait partie de la famille Ṣoḳollu [ q. v.]. A quatorze ans, a…

Naʿīmā

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(1065-1128/1655-1716), historien ottoman. Muṣṭafā Naʿīm, connu sous le mak̲h̲laṣ de Naʿīmā, naquit à Alep d’un père qui était officier des Janissaires. Il entra vers 1100/1688-9, dans le corps des balṭad̲j̲i̊lar [ q.v.] du Palais, à Istanbul et reçut une formation complète de secrétaire, s’intéressant particulièrement à la littérature, à l’histoire et à l’astrologie. Il peut aussi avoir suivi des cours à la mosquée de Bāyezīd. Diplômé du corps des balṭad̲j̲i̊lar, il fut nommé en apprentissage auprès des kātibs du dīwān-i hümāyūn, puis secrétaire de Ḳalayli̊ḳoz Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, ¶ éga…

Taʾrīk̲h̲

(51,484 words)

Author(s): Blois, F. C. de | Dalen, B. van | Humphreys, R. S. | Marίn, Manuela | Lambton, Ann K. S. | Et al.
(a.), «date, datation, chronologie, ère», puis aussi «annales, histoire». I. Dates et Ères dans le Monde Islamique 1. Avec le sens de «date, datation» etc. 2. Chronologie des ères dans les manuels astronomiques. II. Ecriture Historique 1. Dans le monde arabe. (a) Des origines jusque vers 950. (b) Pays du centre et de l’Est 950-1500. (c) La période 1500-1800. (d) Les XIXe et XXe siècles. (e) En Afrique du nord. (f) Dans al-Andalus. 2. En persan. 3. En turc ottomane et en turc moderne. 4. En Inde musulmane. 5. En Afrique occidentale et en Afrique centrale. 6. En Afrique orientale. 7. En Indonési…

Urud̲j̲

(351 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
b. ʿAdil, (fin du XVe siècle/début du XVIe siècle), historien ottoman et auteur de l’une ¶ des premières histoires en turc de la dynastie ottomane. Urud̲j̲ b. ʿĀdil el-Ḳazzāz était le fils d’un marchand de soie; il vécut à Edirne et fut kātib [ q.v.] de profession. Le seul ouvrage que l’on connaisse de lui, Tewārīk̲h̲-i āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān, a probablement été écrit pendant le règne de Bāyezīd II [ q.v.]. On ne connaît aucun autre détail biographique à son sujet. En ce qui concerne le début de l’histoire ottomane, l’histoire de Urud̲j̲ repose en grande partie sur les calendriers royaux, taḳwīms, et …

S̲h̲āriḥ ül-Menār-zāde

(366 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Aḥmed (?-1067/1657), historien ottoman; fils du ʿālim ottoman ʿAbd ül-Ḥalīm (m. 1051/1641-2), il naquit probablement à Amasya et suivit lui aussi une carrière de ʿulemāʾ, faisant son chemin jusqu’à devenir müderris à Istanbul. Comme son père était l’auteur d’un commentaire ottoman sur un ouvrage arabe de jurisprudence, le Manār al-anwār, le fils commença à être connu en général sous le laḳab de S̲h̲āriḥ ül-Menārzāde. Il mourut à Istanbul en s̲h̲aʿbān 1067/mai 1657 (H. J. Kissling (éd.), ʿUsâqîzâde’s Lebensbeschreibungen berühmter Gelehrter und Gottesmänner des Osmanisc…

Mehmed Zaim

(516 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Mehmed Zaim (Meḥmed Zaʿīm, d. after 985/1578) was an Ottoman historian who compiled a general history entitled Camiü ’t-tevarih (Cāmiʿ al-tevārīkh, “Compendium of chronicles”: Karatay 1:171; Rieu, 26, with a variant title). Biographical information is scant and known principally from this unpublished history. He appears to have spent most of his professional life as a katib ( kātib, secretary) in the chancery of the Ottoman grand vizier Sokullu Mehmed Paşa (Ṣoqullū Meḥmed Paşa, c.911–87/1505–79). The epithet Zaim indicates that he was the holder of a zeamet ( zeʿāmet, a living wor…
Date: 2021-02-14

Mehmed Halife

(655 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
Little is known about the life of Mehmed Halife b. Hüseyin (Meḥmed Khalīfe b. Ḥüseyn, d. 1109/1697) apart from occasional information in his history. He was of Bosnian origin. From 1043/1633–4 to 1048/1638 he served as an iç oğlan ( iç oghlān, slave, retainer) in the household of Gürcü (Koca) Kenan (Kenʿān) Paşa (d. 1062/1652), with whom he participated in the Revan (Erivan, 1045/1635) and Baghdad (1048/1638) campaigns of Murad (Murād) IV (1033–50/1623–40). At some point during the reign of Sultan İbrahim (Ibrāhīm, 1049–58/1640–48), Mehmed Halife entered the palace seferli (campaign…
Date: 2021-02-14
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