Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Kramers, J.H." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Kramers, J.H." )' returned 245 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

ʿOt̲h̲mān II

(843 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, sixteenth sulṭān of the Ottoman empire, was born on the 19th Ḏj̲umādā II 1012 (Nov. 15, 1603; cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 56), the son of Sulṭān Aḥmad I. After the death of his father in Nov. 1617, the brother of the latter had been proclaimed sulṭān as Muṣṭafā I [q. v.] but ʿOt̲h̲mān, taking advantage of the weak character of his uncle and supported by the mufti Esʿad Efendi and the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲a Muṣṭafā, seized the throne on Feb. 26, 1618 by a coup d’état. The youth of the new sulṭān at first assured the pr…


(658 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a. mad̲j̲alla). Under this name the Civil Law Code of Turkey; is generally known it is an abbreviation of Med̲j̲elle-i aḥkām-i ʿadlīye. The elaboration of this Civil Code took place between 1869 and 1876 and was a part of the legislative programme of the Tanẓīmāt [q. v.]. It had been preceded by a Penal Code (1858) and a Commercial Code (1861), but, while these two codifications had been based in a large measure on the laws of European countries, the Med̲j̲elle was a codification of that part of Ḥanafite fiḳh, which treats of obligations ( muʿāmalāt). The codification was done by a commi…

Murād III

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twelfth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born on the 5th Ḏj̲umādā I 953 (4th July 1546; Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 76) as son of the later sulṭān Selīm II and the k̲h̲āṣṣekī Nūr Bānū. He arrived at Constantinople on Dec. 21st, 1574, after Selīm II’s death and reigned until his death on January 16, 1595 or a few days later. His reign is not characterized by great conquests in Europe. The peaceful relations with Austria were officially maintained; peace was several times confirmed (in 1575 and 1584) by a new treaty and by extraordinary…


(1,700 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Turkish Armenia, built on a rock to the north of a great plain in the area bounded by the west and south by the Euphrates, in the north by the Murād Ṣu and in the east by the chain of the Armenian Taurus; the site of the town itself lies in the Antitaurus. From the time of Diocletian this territory formed part of the Armenian districts incorporated in the Roman Empire and from the time of Justinian to the Roman province of „Fourth Armenia” which occupied the banks of the Arsanias (Murād Ṣu) and which the earliest Arab geographers still ¶ knew under this name. This district is often rec…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Lala

(381 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Aḥmad I. He was a Bosnian by origin and a relation of Muḥammad Soḳolli Pas̲h̲a. The year of his birth is not given. After having had his education in the palace, he was mīr-ak̲h̲or and became in 1595 ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries. Two years later he took part in the Austrian wars as beylerbey of Rūm-ili and was commander of Esztergom (Gran; Turkish: Usturg̲h̲on) when this town capitulated to the Austrian army in September 1595. During the following years Lala Muḥammad was several times ser-ʿasker in Hungary and when, in July 1604, the grand vizier Yawuz ʿAlī had di…


(739 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a district in Transoxania. The form Osrūs̲h̲ana is the best known although Yāḳūt (i. 245) says that Os̲h̲rūsana is preferable. In the Persian versions of the text of al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and in the Persian text of the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam (ed. Barthold) we find more often Surūs̲h̲ana while Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih sometimes has S̲h̲urūsana; the original form may have been Srōs̲h̲ana. This district lies to the northeast of Samarḳand between this tow D and Ḵh̲od̲j̲and, to the south of the Sīr Daryā (Saiḥūn) so that it forms the approach to th…

Sahl b. Hārūn

(1,009 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arab author and poet who flourished at the end of the second and beginning of the third century a. h. (= beginning of the ninth century a. d.). According to the Fihrist, he was of Persian descent and born in Dastmaisān, between Baṣra and Wāṣiṭ. Al-Ḥuṣrī makes him come from Maisān, which is quite near it, and gives him also the kunya Abū ʿAmr (on the margin of the ʿIḳd, ii. 190). The name of his grandfather is variously given: Rāmnūy, Rāhyūn (both in the Fihrist) or Rāhīyūnī (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Kitāb al-Bayān, i. 24; cf. also van Vloten’s note to p. 10 of his edition of al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ’ Kitāb al-Buk̲h̲alāʾ). S…


(498 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Upper Egypt on the east bank of the Nile. The form Ḳūṣ (Ḳūs in al-Farg̲h̲ānī and Ibn Rusta) comes from the Coptic Kōs (or Kōs Berbir) which a popular etymology later connected with the Coptic verb meaning “to bury”. In the Roman period the town was ¶ called Apollinopolis Parva and sometimes Diocletianopolis. In the early centuries of Islām, Ḳūṣ seems to have been of much less importance than the adjoining town of Ḳifṭ [q.v.]. Some of the early geographers like Ibn Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲bih do not mention it although it is found in the tables of al-Ḵh̲wārizmī (ed. by von Mžik, p. 9) and al-Fa…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Bairaḳdār

(699 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish grand vizier in 1808, was the son of a wealthy Janissary at Rusčuḳ, born about 1750. He distinguished himself in the war with Russia under Muṣṭafā III, and acquired in these years the surname of bairaḳdār. After the war he lived on his estates near Rusčuḳ, and acquired the semiofficial position of aʿyān of Hezārgrād and later of Rusčuḳ. With other aʿyāns he took part in an action against the government at Adrianople, but became finally a reliable supporter of the government. ¶ Having already received the honorary offices of ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ and of mīr ak̲h̲or, he was, in 1806,…


(194 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was the name, in the old military organisation of the Ottoman Empire, of the archers of the Sulṭān’s bodyguard. The word ṣolaḳ is an old Turkish word meaning “left-handed”. The relation of this meaning to that of archer is not quite clear. The solaks belonged to the Janissaries, of which they formed four orta’s (60th -63rd), each of 100 men under the command of a Ṣolaḳ Bas̲h̲i̊, and two lieutenants ( rekiab ṣolag̲h̲i̊). They were, however, used exclusively as bodyguards, a duty they shared with the peik’s [q. v.]. They had the same uniform as the Janissaries, except that they wore a cap ( uskiuf) …


(758 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, a town of mediaeval ʿIrāḳ situated in the Euphrates-Tigris delta region at the head of the Persian Gulf and famed as the terminal for commerce from India and further east. It lay to the east of al-Baṣra [ q.v.] on the right bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the large canal called Nahr al-Ubulla, which was the main waterway from al-Baṣra in a southeastern direction to ¶ the Tigris and further to ʿAbbādān and the sea. The length of this canal is generally given as four farsak̲h̲ s or two barīd s (al-Muḳaddasī). Al-Ubulla can be identified with ’Απολόγου ’Εμπόριον, mentioned in the Periplus m…

Muṣṭafā I

(523 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the fifteenth Ottoman sultan (1026-7/1617-18 and 1031-2/1622-3), was born in the year 1000/1591 as son of Meḥemmed III [ q.v.]. He owed his life to the relaxation of the ḳānūn authorising the killing of all the brothers of a new sultan, and was called to succeed his brother Aḥmed I [ q.v.] at the latter’s death on 23 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1026/22 November 1617. But his weakmindedness —which is said to have him made escape death on account of superstitious fear of Aḥmed— made him absolutely incapable of ruling. Aḥmed’s son ʿOt̲h̲mān, who felt himself e…

al-Mahalla al-Kubrā

(600 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
or maḥalla kabīr is the modern name of an important town in the Delta of the Nile at some distance to the west of the Damietta arm, north-east of Ṭanṭa. It ¶ lies on the Turʿat al-Milāḥ canal, a branch of the Baḥr S̲h̲ībīn. In view of the large number of Egyptian geographical names compounded with Maḥalla (see these listed in Muḥammad Ramzī, al-Ḳāmūs al-d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfī li ’l-bilād al-Miṣriyya , Cairo 1953-68, i, 404-9), the identification of the town with the names mentioned by earlier Arabic writers is a matter of some difficulty. M…


(592 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the form of the name in Ottoman Turkish of the small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ Σάρδεις of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī Bey write Sārd), capital of the Lydian kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Sart Çay (Pakt…


(747 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the name of a region lying to the west of Farg̲h̲āna [ q.v.] in mediaeval Islamic Transoxania, now falling in the region where the eastern part of the Uzbekistan Republic, the northernmost part of the Tajikistan Republic and the easternmost part of the Kirghiz Republic meet. The form Usrūs̲h̲ana is the best known, although Yāḳūt (i, 245) says that Us̲h̲rūsana is preferable. In the Persian versions of the text of al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī and in the Persian text of the

Meḥemmed IV

(1,147 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, nineteenth sultan of the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey, known as awd̲j̲i̊ "the hunter" from his excessive passion for the chase, reigned 1058-99/1648-87. Born on 30 Ramadan 1051/2 January 1642, he was the son of Sultan Ibrāhīm [

Murād I

(2,118 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
(761-91/1360-89), according to the common tradition the third ruler of the Ottoman state, was a son of Ork̲h̲ān and the Byzantine lady Nīlūfer. Although some Ottoman sources profess to know the year of his birth ( …

ʿOt̲h̲mān II

(887 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, sixteenth sultan of the Ottoman empire (regn. 1027-31/1618-22), was born on 19 D̲j̲umādā II 1012/15 November 1603; cf. Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 56), the son of Sultan Aḥmed I. After the death of his father in November 1617, the brother of the latter had been proclaimed sultan as Muṣṭafā I [ q.v.] but ʿOt̲h̲mān, taking advantage of the weak character of his uncle and supported by the Muftī Esʿad Efendi and the Ḳi̊zlar Ag̲h̲asi̊ . Muṣṭafā, seized the thron…

Muṣṭafā III

(1,475 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H.
, the twenty-sixth sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1171-87/1757-74), was one of the younger sons of Aḥmed III [ q.v.] and was born on 14 Ṣafar 1129/28 January 1717 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī , i, 80). When he succeeded to the throne, after ʿOt̲h̲mān III’s [ q.v.] death, on 16 Ṣafar 1171/30 October 1757, his much more popular brother and heir to the throne, Meḥemmed, had recently died, in Rabīʿ I 1170/December 1756. Turkey enjoyed at that time, since the peace of Belgrade of 1739, a period of peace with her neighbours. Since December 1756 the very able Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] was grand vizier and remained the real administr…


(205 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, title of the governors of the Egyptian provinces, called mudīrīya. The use of the word mudīr in this meaning is no doubt of Turkish origin. The office was created by Muḥammad ʿAlī, when, shortly after 1813, he reorganised the administrative division of Egypt, instituting seven mudīrīyas; this number has been changed several times [s. k̲h̲edive]. At the present day there are 14 mudīrīyas. The chief task of the mudīr is the controlling of the agricultural administration and of the irrigation, as executed by his subordinates, viz. the maʾmūr, who administers a markaz and the nāẓir who cont…

Muḥammad V

(614 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
Res̲h̲ād, thirty-fifth Ottoman Sulṭān, was born on November 2, 1844 as a son of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd. During the reign of his brother ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II he lived in seclusion; his very existence inspired ʿAbd al-Hamid with such terror that even the mentioning of persons with the name Res̲h̲ād had to be avoided ¶ in his presence (cf. Snouck Hurgronje, Verspreide Geschriften, iii. 232). He was a man of mild character, who owed his accession to the throne (April 27, 1909) only to the victory of the Young Turks; moreover he was the first constitutional ruler…


(534 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, small village in Lydia in Asia Minor, the ancient Sardes (αἱ ΣάρδειΣ of the classical authors, which makes Sāmī write Sārd), capital of the Lydian Kingdom, situated on the eastern bank of the Ṣart Čai (Pactolus) a little southward to the spot where this river joins the Gedīz Čai (Hermus). Although in the later Byzantine period Sardes had lost much of its former importance (as a metropolitan see) and been outflanked by Magnesia (Turkish Mag̲h̲nīsā) and Philadelphia (Ālā S̲h̲ehr, q. v.), it still was one of the larger towns, when the Seld̲juḳ Turks, in the xith century, made incursions int…

Muḥammad I

(855 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, according to the current view, the fifth Sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, reigned, after the Empire’s restoration in 1413, as sole acknowledged ruler until his death in 1421. Like many details of the first century of Ottoman history, the year of the birth of this Sulṭān is unknown; Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 66 gives 781 or 791 (1379 or 1389). It is commonly agreed, that he was the youngest of the six sons of Bāyazīd I, which probably has made von Hammer accept the later date. At the time of Timur’s invasion, Muḥammad resided at Amasia, but he w…


(423 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Arabic form of the title of provincial governors in the Sāsānian empire, especially of the “wardens of the marches”, the “markgraves”. The word is derived from marz which still means in Persian a frontier district (Horn, Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie, p. 218) and is found in Pehlevi in the form maržpān (in the Kār-nāmak; cf. H. S. Nyberg, Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi, i., Upsala 1928, p. 54) which suggests a north Īrānian origin (cf. Lentz, Z. I. I., iv. 255, 295), as we find alongside of marz also mard̲j̲ in Persian (Horn, loc. cit.). The ¶ title is not found, however, before the Sās…


(300 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a Turkish poet of the second half of the xvith century. His proper name was Muḥammad Bey and he was a descendant of Āyās Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] who was Grand Wazīr under Suleimān I. His life was not eventful; according to Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī he was mutafarriḳa and sand̲j̲āḳ-bey. Ḵh̲āḳānī owes his fame to a not very long māt̲h̲namī called Ḥilya-i S̲h̲arīfa, written in a tripodic ramal-metre. This poem is a paraphrase of an Arabic text known as al-Ḥilya al-Nabawīya containing a traditional account of the prophet’s personal appearance; each of the enumerated features is comment…


(87 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, an Arabic maṣdar meaning to make a précis, means in the official language of Turkey a document in which the most important matters are summed up for presentation to the Sulṭān. The officials who had these papers prepared and presented them to the Sulṭān were the grand vizier and the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām. On account of its change of significance, talk̲h̲īṣ is included among the g̲h̲alaṭāt-i mas̲h̲hūra, cf. Muḥammad Hafīd, al-Durar al-muntak̲h̲abāt al-mant̲h̲ūra fī Iṣlāḥ al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra (1221 a. h., p. 115). (J. H. Kramers)


(171 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a., t.); this word, the Arabic meaning “distribution” of which is a synonym of iḳtisām later came to mean lot, portion and developed as a third meaning “the lot which is destined for every man°. It is this meaning of the Turkish that is best known. In Turkish however ḳismet is not so much an expression of theological doctrines concerning predestination (cf. ḳadar) as of a practical fatalism which accepts with resignation the blows and vicissitudes of fate. The same sentiment is often expressed among Persian and Turkish poets by the words falak and čark̲h̲ to express the irrational and i…


(2,943 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a.), 1. a title which first appears in the fourth (xith) century in the sense of a powerful ruler, an independent sovereign of a certain territory. The word is of frequent occurrence in the Ḳurʾān, most often with the meaning of a moral or magical authority supported by proofs or miracles which afford the right to make a statement of religious import. The prophets received this sulṭān from Allāh (cf. e. g. Sūra xiv. 12, 13) and the idolators are often invited to produce a sulṭān in support of their beliefs. Thus the dictionaries (like the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, v. 159) explain the word as synony…


(850 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
is the name by which the national hero of Albania is generally known in Europe. It is based on an Italianised or Latinised form of the name Iskandar Beg, which was given him in his youth when he was serving at the Ottoman court; the name contains an allusion to that of Alexander the Great. His real name was George Kastriota, of the family of the Kastriotas of Serbian origin, who had once ruled Epirus and Southern Albania. Born about 1404, he and his three elder brothers were given as hostages to Sulṭān Murād II, so that he was brought up in the Muslim religion as ič og̲h̲lan. His ability won him the …

Sulaimān II

(746 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twentieth Ottoman Sulṭān, reigned from 1687 to 1691. He was born in 1052 (1642) (on 15th Muḥarram = April 15, according to von Hammer, G. O. R., the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī gives the 25th Ṣafar = May 25), and was the son of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm; from the accession of his brother Muḥammad IV he lived the life of a prisoner in the palace with his brother Aḥmad. On the deposition of Muḥammad IV, the result of the defeat of the Turkish army at Mohács, Sulaimān was placed on the throne on Nov. 8, 1637, mainly through the efforts of the ḳāʾim-maḳām Köprülü Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a. In the precarious position of t…


(780 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Siʿird or Saïrd, a little town in the frontier region between Armenia and Turkish Kurdistān, situated in a valley formed by the Bohtān Ṣu and the river of Bidlis about 30 miles S.W. of Bidlis and about 18 north of the Tigris. The little river Kezer runs near Seʿerd; but it is the Bohtān Ṣu which is sometimes called Seʿerd Ṣu (Söʿörd Su in von Moltke). litis name is also found in al-Masʿūdī, the earliest Arab geographer to mention Seʿerd; he calls the Bohtān Ṣu ¶ (ed. Paris 1840, i. 227); likewise al-Idrīsī (transl. Jaubert, ii. 172). The orthography varies much: (al-Iṣṭak̲h̲rī, Ibn al-At̲h̲īr…

S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām

(3,638 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
is one of the honorific titles which first appear in the second half of the fourth century a. h. While other honorific titles compounded with Islām (like ʿIzz-, Ḏj̲alāl-, Saif al-Islām) were borne by persons exercising secular power (notably the viziers of the Fāṭimids, cf. van Berchem, Z. D. P. V., xvi., p. 101), the title of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām has always been reserved for ʿulamāʾ and mystics, like other titles of honour whose first part is S̲h̲aik̲h̲ (e. g. S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Dīn; the surname of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Fatyā is given by Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn to the jurist Asad b. al-Furāt; cf. Muḳaddima, transl.…


(369 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Ḥakīm Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abū Isḥāḳ (or Abu ’l-Ḥasan) Kisāʾī, a Persian poet of the second half of the fourth century a. h. belonging to the first period of Persian poetry. He was ¶ born in Merw on Wednesday 26th S̲h̲awwāl 341 (March 16, 953) and according to most authorities died in 392 (1002); one source however (Wāliḥ, quoted by Ethé), says that he reached a very advanced age. A few of his poems have been preserved in the different tad̲h̲kīra: they have been published by Ethé ( Die Lieder des Kisâʾî, S.-B. Bayr. Ak., 1874, p. 133—149). These poems illustrate the whole repertory of Persia…


(5,340 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a Persian province and of its present capital. The name of the town was derived later from that of the province. The usual pronunciation is Kirmān, although, according to the tradition of Arab scholarship (Yāḳūt, iv. 263) the form Karman is more correct; the name, in any case, goes back to the form Carmania, which is found in Strabo (xv. 2, 14), and which in its turn is said to be derived from the name of an ancient capital, Carmana (Ptolemy, Geography, vi. 8; Ammianus Marcellinus, xxiii. 6, 48). According to Marquart ¶ ( Ērānšahr, p. 30) the name Carmania replaced that of Yūti…

Muṣṭafā II

(872 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the twenty-second Ottoman sulṭān, was a son of Muḥammad IV. Born in 1664, he succeeded to his uncle Aḥmad II on February 6, 1695, at a time when the empire was at war with Austria, Poland, Russia und Venice. The new sulṭān in a remarkable k̲h̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf proclaimed a Holy War and carried out, against the decision of the Dīwān, his desire to take part in the campaign against Austria. Before his departure a mutiny of the Janissaries had cost the grand vizier Defterdār ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a his life (April 24, 1693) and the campaign was led by the new grand viz…


(857 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Abī Bakr al-Bannāʾ al-S̲h̲aʾmī al-Muḳaddasī al-maʿrūf bi ’l-Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ārī as he is called on the first page of the Berlin manuscript (Cat. Ahlwardt, N°. 6034), is the author of the most original and at the same time one of the most valuable geographical treatises in Arabic literature. The name-form al-Muḳaddasī, denoting his origin from Jerusalem, goes back to Sprenger, who brought the Berlin manuscript from India and made this author first known in Europe (A. Sprenger, Die Post-und Reiserouten des Orients, Leipzig 1864, p. xviii.…

Muḥammad III

(651 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, thirteenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was born on May 16,1567, the son of Murād III and the Venetian lady Baffa, and reigned from January 27, 1593 until his death, December 22, 1603. He was the last sulṭān who, as crown prince, had resided as governor in Mag̲h̲nisa. During his short reign he does not seem to have exercised any great influence on the policy of the Empire, being mostly under the influence of his mother who, as wālide sulṭān, intervened in affairs of state through her protégés within and without the palace. Much against her will but on the insistence of a …

Ḳod̲j̲a Ili

(406 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ in the old territorial division of the Ottoman empire. This sand̲j̲aḳ covered the north-west part of Bithynia, including the whole of the shore of the Gulf of Nicomedia. In the north it was bounded by the Black Sea, in the east by the Bosphorus and the Gulf of Nicomedia, in the south by the sand̲j̲aḳ of Brusa and in the east by that of Boli; on this side the Saḳaria forms the natural boundary but in the administrative division the eastern bank of this river was included in the sand̲j̲aḳ. The name Ḳod̲j̲a Hi is connected with Aḳče Ḳod̲j̲a, the famous g̲h̲āzī and companion-in-…


(684 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the part of the range of hills west of the Nile, which lies immediately to the east of Cairo and from which the mountains take a north-easterly direction, bordering the Nile delta to the south-east. It reaches a height of about 600 feet and consists, as does the greater part of the north African mountains, of limestome (cf. Description de l’Egypte, Etat moderne, Paris 1822, ii/ii. 751). The name Muḳaṭṭam (the Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs records also the popular form al-Muḳaṭṭab) does not go back to a pre-Muḥammadan nomenclature, nor is it considered, in spite of its correct Ar…


(1,694 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town lying in a plain among the mountain ranges that border the Iranian plateau on the south-west, now the capital of a Persian province between Kurdistān on the north and Luristān on the south. The geographical position of the town is approximately 34° 20′ North Lat. and 47° East Long.; the plain is traversed by the Ḳara Ṣu which runs to the north-east of the town in a south-easterly direction, joining the river Gāmāsiyāb (formerly the Gāwmāsā Rūd) farther south; the latter is a tributary of the Kerk̲h̲a [q.v.] and the most important water-course of the province. It was probably in this …

Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(437 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of several places in Asia Minor. The meaning — if it is not ¶ simply a corruption of Ḳod̲j̲a Ḥiṣār — is “castle of the ram” and it may be compared with proper names like Ḳoyun Ḥiṣār, Toḳlu Ḥiṣār, Keči Ḥiṣār. 1. Ḳoč Ḥiṣār in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Kang̲h̲ri is a little town on the Dewrek Cai, twenty-five miles north of the town of Kang̲h̲ri. It is on the high road from Constantinople to Boli, Amasia and Erzerūm, between Ḳarad̲j̲a Wīrān and Ṭosia. According to Ewliyā Čelebi, this Ḳoč Ḥiṣār was captured by ʿOt̲h̲mān in 708 (1308) and comp…

Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a Lala

(654 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a famous military commander in the Ottoman history of the xvith century. The date of his birth is not given. He was a native of Ṣoḳol, the ¶ same Bosnian locality from which came the grand vizier Ṣoḳolli [q. v.], and began his service in the imperial serāy. He rose in rank under the grand vizier Aḥmad (1553—1555), but was not in favour with the letter’s successor Rustam Pas̲h̲a, who made him in 1556 lālā to prince Selīm with the object of ruining him. The outcome of this nomination was the contrary of what was expected; Muṣṭafā became the chief originator of the intr…


(901 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the Italian form of the name of the Greek town Naupactos which the Turks call Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. This is how the Turkish form is transcribed, e. g. by Leunclavius ( Annales Turcici, p. 35) while von Hammer ( G. O. R., iii. 318) transcribes it as Aina Bak̲h̲ti̊, which he translates ¶ “Spiegelglück”; in view of the Greek form however it is very probable that the Turks originally pronounced it Ine Bak̲h̲ti̊. The town is situated in the ancient Locris, north of the strait which leads from the Ionian Sea towards the Gulf of Corinth, known since the middle ages as the Gulf of Lepanto. After forming from t…

Sulaimān I

(4,968 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the tenth and the greatest of the Ottoman Sulṭāns, reigned from 1520 to 1566. The Turks call him Ḳānūnī Sulṭān Sulaimān and western authors Soliman the Magnificent. Some Western historians like Leunclavius and, more recently, Jorga call him Sulaimān II, the first Sulaimān having been, according to them, the son of Bāyazīd I who lived at Adrianople. In Turkey however the opinion that Sulaimān the Legislator is the first of the name has prevailed; he is always called Sulaimān Ḵh̲ān Awwal and the ten s̲h̲erfe of the four minarets of the Sulaimānīya mosque signify, according to the Ḥadīḳat al-…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(678 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Viceroy (Ḵh̲edive) of Egypt from 1854 to 1863. Muḥammad Saʿīd, youngest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā, was born in 1822. His father had a very high opinion of this, his fourth, son whom he sent when only 19 to Constantinople to conduct negotiations regarding the tribute to be paid by Egypt. Saʿīd, who was francophil, was not on good terms with his nephew and predecessor, ʿAbbās I [q.v.]. The latter had done everything possible to induce the Porte to alter the law of succession formulated by the Sulṭān’s firmān in favour of Muḥammad ʿAlī and to s…


(1,245 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, turkicised form of the Arabic tard̲j̲amān (cf. Muḥammad Ḥafīd, al-G̲h̲alaṭāt al-mas̲h̲hūra, p. 110) meaning an interpreter. The word is of Aramaic origin and early entered the Arabic language. Interpreters must have always played an important part in the commercial and diplomatical relations of Islāmic states with foreign peoples, but their activity begins to enter into clearer historical light only in the vith (xiith) century; from that time date the earliest known treaties between Christian towns or states and Muslim rulers of the countries around the M…


(2,473 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the town of Salonika in Macedonia, situated at the foot of the Gulf of Salonika, to the east of the mouth of the Wardar and at the foot of a hill which commands it on the north-east. It is the ancient Greek town of Θεσσαλονίκη, founded on the site of Therma by Cassander, who gave the new city the name of his wife, the sister of Alexander the Great (Strabo, VII, vii. 4). Towards the eleventh century, the popular form Σαλονίκιον appears ( Chronicle of the Morea) on which is based the form Ṣalūnīḳ or Ṣalūnīḳ in al-Idrīsī, the Bulgarian form Solun, the western form Salonika and fina…

Mūsā Čelebi

(509 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, one of the younger sons of the Ottoman sulṭān Bāyazīd I. According to some sources he was younger than his brother Muḥammad I [q. v.], who is generally considered as the youngest. Mūsā had been taken prisoner in the battle of Angora (1402) and was left by Tīmūr in custody with the Germiyān Og̲h̲lū Yaʿḳūb Beg. The latter sent him afterwards to his brother Muḥammad in Amasia, and for some time he became Muḥammad’s helper in the reestablishment of Ottoman power in Anatolia; he is even said to hav…

Sulṭān Öñü

(515 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, is the ancient name of the part of Phrygia in Asia Minor, situated to the N.W. of Eski S̲h̲ehir, which was the birthplace of the Ottoman power. The name existed already in the time of the Seld̲j̲ūḳs, for it is mentioned in the Chronicle of Ibn Bībī (Houtsma, Recueil de textes relatifs a l’histoire des Seldjoucides, iii. 217) as a frontier district of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ empire, the protection of which was trusted to frontier warders ( uč begleri) such as Ertog̲h̲rul. Among the early Ottoman historians Nes̲h̲rī (ed. Nöldeke, Z.D.M.G., xiii. 190) mentions Sulṭān Öñü as the place where Erto…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(586 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, vizier and, according to some sources, grand vizier under Sulṭān Muḥammad II. As his surname indicates he was a Greek renegade. After having had an education in the palace he was destined for a military career and became at one time beylerbey. The dates of his birth and of his military advancements are not recorded. He had taken part in the final campaign of Muḥammad II against Ḳaramān in 1466 and was charged by the sulṭān with the transfer of parts of the population of the conquered regions to Constantinople, instead of the grand viz…
▲   Back to top   ▲